The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks
Frances Hagopian, Scott P. Mainwaring
Cambridge University Press, Jun 6, 2005 - Political Science
The late twentieth century witnessed the birth of an impressive number of new democracies in Latin America. This wave of democratization since 1978 has been by far the broadest and most durable in the history of Latin America, but many of the resulting democratic regimes also suffer from profound deficiencies. What caused democratic regimes to emerge and survive? What are their main achievements and shortcomings? This volume offers an ambitious and comprehensive overview of the unprecedented advances as well as the setbacks in the post-1978 wave of democratization. It seeks to explain the sea change from a region dominated by authoritarian regimes to one in which openly authoritarian regimes are the rare exception, and it analyzes why some countries have achieved striking gains in democratization while others have experienced erosions. The book presents general theoretical arguments about what causes and sustains democracy and analyses of nine compelling country cases.
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actors Argentina authoritarian authoritarian regimes Bolivia Brazil Brazilian candidate capita Chavez Chile citizens civil society civilian coalition collapse Colombia competitive conflict Congress constitutional contest COPEI corruption Costa Rica coup crisis decades decline democ democracy in Latin democratic breakdown democratic governance democratic regime democratic stability despite Ecuador effective El Salvador electoral electoral fraud elite erosion FMLN FREDEMO Freedom House FREPASO Fujimori groups growth Guatemala guerrilla human rights ideological impact important increased independent indigenous inflation Latin America leaders Mainwaring major Menem Mexico military municipal neoliberal opposition organizations participation party system percent period Peronist Peru polarization political parties politicians popular population postauthoritarian regime poverty president presidential election Przeworski racy reforms region result role rule Salvador Salvadoran sectors Seligson semidemocracy social structural support for democracy survival Third Wave tion transition Uruguay variables Venezuela violence vote voters wave of democratization World Bank