Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire

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Princeton University Press, Dec 1, 2002 - History - 243 pages
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Cities throughout the Roman Empire flourished during the reign of Hadrian (A.D. 117-138), a phenomenon that not only strengthened and legitimized Roman dominion over its possessions but also revealed Hadrian as a masterful negotiator of power relationships. In this comprehensive investigation into the vibrant urban life that existed under Hadrian's rule, Mary T. Boatwright focuses on the emperor's direct interactions with Rome's cities, exploring the many benefactions for which he was celebrated on coins and in literary works and inscriptions. Although such evidence is often as imprecise as it is laudatory, its collective analysis, undertaken for the first time together with all other related material, reveals that over 130 cities received at least one benefaction directly from Hadrian. The benefactions, mediated by members of the empire's municipal elite, touched all aspects of urban life; they included imperial patronage of temples and hero tombs, engineering projects, promotion of athletic and cultural competitions, settlement of boundary disputes, and remission of taxes.


Even as he manifested imperial benevolence, Hadrian reaffirmed the self-sufficiency and traditions of cities from Spain to Syria, the major exception being his harsh treatment of Jerusalem, which sparked the Third Jewish Revolt. Overall, the assembled evidence points to Hadrian's recognition of imperial munificence to cities as essential to the peace and prosperity of the empire. Boatwright's treatment of Hadrian and Rome's cities is unique in that it encompasses events throughout the empire, drawing insights from archaeology and art history as well as literature, economy, and religion.


  

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
3
SATYAGRAHA ITS BASIC PRECEPTS
15
Truth
16
Nonviolence
23
Selfsuffering
26
The Role of the Individual
29
The Relationship of the Three Elements in Satyagraha
31
The Problem of Means in Satyagraha
32
The Character of Gandhis Appeal
120
Satyagraha in an Islamic Setting
131
Conclusion
144
CONSERVATIVE OR ANARCHIST? A NOTE ON GANDHI AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
146
Gandhi and Conservatism
148
Respect for the Wisdom of Established Institutions
149
Religious institutions
151
Property
153

SATYAGRAHA AS APPLIED SOCIOPOLITICAL ACTION
36
The Essentials of Satyagraha in Action
38
Code of Discipline
39
Steps in a Satyagraha Campaigns
40
Satyagraha or Duragraha?
41
An Analysis of Five Satyagraha Campaigns
45
The Vykom Temple Road Satyagraha
46
Summary Analysis of the Vykom Temple Road Satyagraha
50
The Bardoli Campaign of Peasants Against the Government of Bombay
53
Summary Analysis of the Bardoli Campaign
61
The Ahmedabad Labor Satyagraha
65
Summary Analysis of the Ahmedabad Labor Satyagraha
71
Nationwide Satyagraha Against the Rowlatt Bills
73
Summary Analysis of the Satyagraha Against the Rowlatt Bills
82
The Salt Satyagraha
88
Summary Analysis of the Satyagraha Against the Rowlatt Bills
100
Concluding Note on the Five Campaigns
102
HINDU TRADITION AND SATYAGRAHA THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GANDHIAN INNOVATIONS
105
Satya
108
Ahimsa
111
Tapasya
113
The Concepts of Karma and Nonattachment
115
The Traditional Methods of Hartal Fast Dharna
118
Continuity in the Historical Changes of the Social System
159
Impotence of Individual Will and Reason
164
Attachment of Members of a Society to Their Stations
167
Anarchist Elements in Gandhian Thought
172
Conclusion
188
THE GANDHIAN DIALECTIC AND POLITICAL THEORY
189
A Theoretical Statement of Satyagraha
190
How the Gandhian Dialectic Operates
192
Satyagraha versus Compromise
196
The Element of Sacrifice
198
The Failure of Traditional Political Theory
199
Conservatism and the Problem of Means
200
Authoritarian Idealism and the Problem of Means
211
Liberal Democratic Theory
214
The Operation of Satyagraha against a Totalitarian Regime
226
A Note on the Function of Suffering in Satyagraha
228
EndsMeans as Convertible Terms
230
Epilogue
234
Notes
243
Bibliography
259
Glossary
269
Index
273
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About the author (2002)

Mary T. Boatwright is Professor of Ancient History in the Department of Classical Studies at Duke University. She is the author of several books, including Hadrian and the City of Rome; Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire; The Romans: From Village to Empire, A History of Ancient Rome from Earliest Times to Constantine (with Daniel J. Gargola and Richard J. A. Talbert); and A Brief History of the Romans (with Daniel J. Gargola and Richard J. A. Talbert).

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