Navigation

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 4, 2003 - Science - 427 pages
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Global positioning systems like GPS or the future European Galileo are influencing the world of navigation tremendously. Today, everybody is concerned with navigation even if unaware of this fact. Therefore, the interest in navigation is steadily increasing. This book provides an encyclopedic view of navigation. Fundamental elements are presented for a better understanding of the techniques, methods, and systems used in positioning and guidance. The book consists of three parts. Beside a historical review and maps, the first part covers mathematical and physical fundamentals. The second part treats the methods of positioning including terrestrial, celestial, radio- and satellite-based, inertial, image-based, and integrated navigation. Routing and guidance are the main topics of the third part. Applications on land, at sea, in the air, and in space are considered, followed by a critical outlook on the future of navigation. This book is designed for students, teachers, and people interested in entering the complex world of navigation.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
13 Quality parameters
4
14 Applications and phases of navigation
5
15 User requirements
6
16 Miscellaneous
7
Historical review
9
22 Hellenistic period and Roman Empire
10
23 Middle ages
11
95 Galileo
185
952 System architecture
186
953 Satellite signal and observables
187
954 System services
188
96 Other satellitebased navigation systems
189
Augmentation systems
191
102 Differential GNSS
193
1022 Mathematical models
194

24 Seventeenth and eighteenth century
12
25 Nineteenth and twentieth century
13
3 Mathematical fundamentals
19
312 Transformations
23
313 Differential relations
29
32 Principles of position determination
31
322 Position fixing
32
33 Principles of velocity determination
39
34 Principles of attitude determination
43
342 Least squares approach
45
35 Accuracy measures
46
352 Accuracy equivalences
49
362 Recursive least squares adjustment
50
363 Discrete Kalman filtering
52
37 Principles of routing and guidance
55
372 Combinatorial optimization
56
4 Physical fundamentals
59
412 Doppler frequency shift
62
42 Electromagnetic wave propagation
65
422 Atmospheric structure
66
423 Phase and group velocity
70
424 Lineofsight ground and sky waves
72
43 Observables from electromagnetic waves
75
432 Range rates and velocities
76
Maps
77
52 Types of maps
78
53 Map projections
80
54 Digital maps
83
542 Modeling and graph theory
84
543 Navigable maps and requirements
90
544 Standardization and products
93
Terrestrial navigation
99
612 Units
100
613 Terms
101
62 Instruments and observables
105
622 Heights and depths
108
623 Velocities
109
624 Directions
111
625 Time
113
63 Position determination
115
64 Drift
116
641 Drift determination
117
642 Drift correction
118
Celestial navigation
121
72 Astronomical basics
122
722 Time systems
127
73 Celestial fix by spherical resection
129
731 Observation of altitudes
130
732 Mathematical model
132
74 Star tracker
135
742 Mathematical model
136
743 Reduction of star coordinates
137
Terrestrial radio navigation
139
822 Nondirectional beacon
141
824 VHFomnidirectional range
142
825 Doppler VOR
143
827 Tactical air navigation
144
83 Areabased systems
145
831 Phasedout systems
146
832 LoranC
147
833 Datatrak
156
834 Digital television networks
158
835 Cellular communication networks
159
84 Aircraft landing systems
163
842 Microwave landing system
166
Satellitebased navigation
169
922 Tsikada
172
932 System architecture Space segment
173
933 Satellite signal and observables
176
934 System capabilities and accuracies
178
935 Modernization concept
181
94 GLONASS
183
942 Comparison of GPS and GLONASS
184
1023 Systems and concepts
199
1024 Multiplereferencestation concept
201
1025 Data transfer
202
103 Integrity monitoring
206
1031 Integritymonitoring services
208
104 Examples of augmentation systems
209
1042 Spacebased systems
212
Inertial navigation
215
112 Sensors
218
1122 Gyroscopes
221
113 Navigation equations
227
1132 Inertial frame
229
1133 Local level frame
230
114 Platform alignment
236
1142 Error control
238
1152 Influence of sensor errors
243
1153 Total system performance
245
12 Imagebased navigation
247
1212 Navigation techniques
248
1214 Sensors
251
122 Impacts on imagebased navigation
253
1222 Digital image processing
259
1223 Computer vision
263
123 Image sequence analysis
264
1231 Analysis criteria
265
1232 Processing strategy
266
1233 Image correspondence techniques
269
124 Imagebased navigation techniques
272
1242 Remote positioning
274
1243 Exemplary realizations
275
Integrated navigation
277
133 Principles of sensor fusion
281
1332 Filter design
282
134 Typical multisensor systems
284
1342 GNSS and INS
288
1343 GNSS and LoranC
291
1344 GPS GLONASS and Galileo
294
1345 Map aiding
295
Routing and guidance
299
1422 Path algorithm realization
312
1423 Complex applications
321
143 Route guidance
329
1432 Guidance the whole concept
333
Vehicle and traffic management
337
1511 Development of ITS
338
1512 Specific aspects
341
152 Landbased traffic management
342
1521 Invehicle navigation systems
343
1522 Advisory routing systems
345
1523 Fleet management systems
348
1524 Desktop routing systems
350
153 Maritime traffic management
351
1531 Electronic chart display and information system
352
1532 Vessel traffic services
354
154 Air traffic management
355
1541 Flight management system
356
1542 Air traffic control
357
1543 Air traffic services
358
16 Application examples
361
1612 Marine navigation
362
1613 Aeronautic navigation
366
1614 Space navigation
373
162 Specific applications
375
1622 Indoor navigation
377
1623 Mobile mapping
379
1624 Locationbased services
381
1625 Mobile robotics
384
163 Other applications
386
1632 Timing
390
Critical outlook
393
References
397
Index
409
Copyright

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References to this book

Orbits
Guochang Xu
Limited preview - 2008