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3DESIGN DEFICIENCIES LEADING TO FAILURE
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abutments ACI Committee ACI Journal arch architects bars beams bearing bracing brick bridge Brooklyn-Queens Expressway Building Code built calcium chloride cause cement collapse columns completed concrete construction concrete structures contractor corrosion cover cracks crete damage dead load deck deflection diagonal dome Engineering News-Record erection errors expansion joints failed failure occurred falsework Figure flat slab footings form removal formwork foundation ft high girders grouted horizontal incident inspection investigation joists lateral lift slab live load longitudinal masonry materials ment mortar overloading percent piers piles pipe placed post-tensioning precast pressure prestressed concrete problems protection reinforced concrete reported reshoring resistance result Rigid Frame roof slab second floor shear shores shotcrete showed shrinkage soil spalling span spandrels specifications splices steel strength stress structural failures supervision supported surface tank temperature thick third floor tion vertical wall welding wires York York Coliseum