The Parameter of Aspect

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 31, 1997 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 349 pages
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While working on this project I have received institutional support of several kinds, for which I am most grateful. I thank the Institute for Advanced Study at Stanford University, and the Spencer Foundation. for a stimulating environment in which the basic idea of this book was developed. The Max Planck Institute for Psycho linguistics at Nijmegen enabled me to spend several months working on the the manuscript. A National Science Foundation grant to develop Discourse Representation Theory, and a grant from The University Research Institute of the University of Texas, also gave me time to pursue this project. I thank Helen Aristar-Dry for reading early drafts of the manuscript, Osten Dahl for penetrating remarks on a preliminary version, and my collaborator Gilbert Rappaport for relentless comments and questions throughout. People with whom I have worked on particular languages are mentioned in the relevant chapters. lowe a special debt of gratitude to the members of my graduate seminar on aspect in the spring of 1990: they raised many questions of importance which made a real differ ence to the final form of the theory. I have benefitted from presenting parts of this material publicly, including colloquia at the University of California at Berkeley, the University of California at San Diego, the University of Pennsylvania, Rice University, the University of Texas, and University of Tel Aviv. I thank Adrienne Diehr and Marjorie Troutner for their efficient and good-humored help throughout the work on the first edition.
  

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Contents

THE APPROACH
1
111 The Two Components in Sentences
2
112 Aspectual Systems in Language
4
12 Aspectual choice
6
13 The Structure of the Aspectual Components
8
132 Markedness Categorization and Aspectual Choice
10
133 Situation type categories and prototype theory
11
14 The Parameter of Aspect and Universal Grammar
13
832 Activities
177
833 Accomplishments
178
834 Semelfactives
180
835 Achievements
181
836 Statives
182
84 Temporal location and aspect
184
841 Present tense sentences
185
842 The Perfect construction
186

SITUATION ASPECT
17
22 Temporal Features of the Situation Types
19
23 The Causal Chain
21
24 The Situation Types
22
241 Activities
23
242 Accomplishments
26
243 Semelfactives
29
244 Achievements
30
245 Statives
32
25 The General Categories of Event and State
35
THE LINGUISTIC REALIZATION OF THE SITUATION TYPES
39
312 Linguistic characterizations of the situation types
44
32 Derived Situation Types
48
322 Multipleevent Activities
50
324 Marked Focus
51
325 A Principle for Interpreted Situation Type Shifts
53
33 Rules for Composing Verb Constellations
54
331 DerivedLevel Verb Constellations
55
34 Verb Constellations of Interest
56
342 Vague Verb Constellations
58
VIEWPOINT ASPECT
61
41 Semantic Information and Aspectual Viewpoints
62
42 Families of Viewpoints
65
421 Perfective viewpoints
66
422 Imperfective viewpoints
73
423 Neutral Viewpoints
77
43 The Independance of Viewpoint and Situation Type
81
432 Visible information and the imperfective paradox
83
433 The relation between statives and imperfectives
84
44 Viewpoints and Conventions of Use
86
442 Augmented interpretation
87
433 Conventions of use for aspectual viewpoints
88
444 Narrative conventions and the viewpoints
92
TEMPORAL LOCATION
97
52 Temporal Information in Sentences
99
522 A systematic account of temporal reference and temporal location
101
53 Tenses and the Perfect
106
533 Sentences about the Present
110
54 Temporal Adverbials
112
55 The Interpretation of Temporal Expressions
117
THE FORMAL ANALYSIS OF TEMPORAL MEANING
123
62 Situation Aspect
124
63 Viewpoint Aspect
126
631 Perfective Viewpoints
128
632 Imperfective Viewpoints
130
Determining the Aspectual Meaning of Sentences
131
641 Computing scopal structure
132
642 Compositional rules for situation type
133
65 Determining the Temporal Location Meaning of Sentences
137
ASPECTUAL MEANING IN DISCOURSE REPRESENTATION THEORY
141
72 Discourse Representation Theory
144
73 Discourse Representation Structures
145
732 Temporal Location in Discourse Representation Structures
148
733 Other Viewpoints in Discourse Representation Structures
150
74 Relating the Discourse Representation Structure to a Model
152
75 Aspectual Indeterminacy and Inference
154
76 Additional DRSs
160
PART TWO
165
INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO
167
THE ASPECTUAL SYSTEM OF ENGLISH
169
821 The Perfective Viewpoint
170
822 The Imperfective Viewpoint
171
823 Conventions of use
175
83 Situation Type
176
843 The Futurate
189
THE ASPECTUAL SYSTEM OF FRENCH
193
921 The perfective viewpoint
194
922 The Imperfective Viewpoints
197
923 The Neutral Viewpoint
201
93 Temporal Location
204
932 Present tense
208
933 The Future
210
934 Conventions of use
211
94 Situation Aspect
214
942 Activities
215
943 Accomplishments
218
944 Semelfactives
220
946 Statives
222
THE ASPECTUAL SYSTEM OF RUSSIAN with Gilbert C Rappaport
227
1012 Morphological preliminaries
228
102 Viewpoint aspect
229
1021 The perfective viewpoint
230
1022 The imperfective viewpoint
231
1023 Conventions of use
234
103 Situation Aspect
241
1032 Temporal properties in Russian
242
1033 Activities
243
1034 Accomplishments
245
1035 Semelfactives
246
1036 Achievements
247
1037 Statives
248
104 Temporal location in Russian
250
1042 Adverbials
251
1043 Infinitives
252
105 Negation
256
THE ASPECTUAL SYSTEM OF MANDARIN CHINESE
263
1122 The Imperfective Viewpoints
271
1123 The Neutral viewpoint
277
1124 Conventions of Use
279
113 Situation aspect
281
1132 Temporal properties in Mandarin
284
1133 Activities
285
1134 Accomplishments
287
7735 Semelfactives
290
1136 Achievements
291
1137 Statives
292
1138 Verb constellations of special interest
294
THE ASPECTUAL SYSTEM OF NAVAJO
297
The Navajo verb
298
122 Viewpoint aspect
300
1221 The Perfective Viewpoint
301
1222 The Imperfective Viewpoint
302
1223 The Progressive Viewpoint
303
1224 The Neutral Viewpoint
304
1225 Conventions of Use
306
123 Situation aspect
309
1232 Temporal properties in Navajo
312
1233 Durative events
313
1234 Instantaneous events
317
124 Lexical and morphological factors in Navajo
319
1242 Verb Lexeme Categories
321
125 Time expressions in Navajo
323
1252 Temporal duration
324
Examples of VLCs
327
REFERENCES
331
Subject Index
343
Name Index
347
Copyright

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About the author (1997)

Carlota S. Smith is Centennial Professor of Linguistics at the University of Texas. She is the author of The Parameter of Aspect (second edition, 1997). Her current research is at the interface of syntax, semantics and pragmatics, especially in texts.