Forest decline concepts
Paul D. Manion, Denis Lachance, American Phytopathological Society. Meeting, Canadian Phytopathological Society. Meeting
APS Press, 1992 - Nature - 249 pages
International in scope, this book provides a foundation of diverse ideas and approaches to explain complex problems of trees.
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A NATURAL DIEBACK THEORY COHORT
CLIMATIC PERTURBATION AS A GENERAL
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abiotic acid acute yellowing adelgid air pollution Alaska yellow-cedar annual Armillaria assessment associated balsam wooly adelgid bark beech birch dieback Canada canker canopy cause cavitation cedar changes climate conifers Crown class Crown condition crown dieback damage classes dead death decline and mortality decline diseases decline plots defoliation deterioration dieback and decline dieback-decline diseases drought dying ecological ecosystem Environment environmental episodes etiology foliage forest condition forest damage forest dieback forest health survey forest trees Forestry fungi Geostatistical Germany growth insects Kandler leaf Manion maple dieback non-decline plots northern hardwoods Norway spruce oak decline observed occurred Ontario pathogens Phytopathology Plant Quebec recent red spruce region reported root saprogens senescence silver fir snags soil southeast Alaska spatial stands stem stress factors studies sugar maple sugar maple decline symptoms Tannensterben temperatures tissues tree condition tree decline tree species USDA variables variogram Waldsterben xylem yellow birch