The Encyclopedia of Wood

Front Cover
U S Dept of Agriculture
Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2007 - House & Home - 496 pages
1 Review
Timber is one of our most precious, versatile, and vulnerable resources, so using it effectively is important. Knowing your material inside and out is the first step to doing just that. Read about the structure of wood itself, from growth rings to its chemical composition. Learn wood’s physical and mechanical properties, including everything from elasticity to nuclear radiation. This extensive manual includes a section on stress grading as well as thorough descriptions of which fasteners to use and when. It has information on adhesive bonding, biodeterioration, control of moisture content, preservation, fire safety, specialty treatments, and much more. The Encyclopedia of Wood is an essential resource for builders, architects, engineers, and woodworkers.
  

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Contents

Characteristics and Availability of Commercially Important Woods
1-1
Timber Resources and Uses
1-2
US Wood Species
1-3
Imported Woods
1-17
References
1-34
Structure of Wood Bark Wood Branches and Cambium
1-35
Growth Rings
1-36
Chemical Composition
1-37
Plywood
10-6
Particle and Fiber Composites
10-13
WoodNonwood Composites
10-24
References
10-30
Glued Structural Members Structural Composite Lumber
11-1
Glulam
11-3
Glued Members With Lumber and Panels
11-12
Structural Sandwich Construction
11-16

References
1-38
Physical Properties and Moisture Relations of Wood Appearance
3-1
Moisture Content
3-5
Shrinkage
3-7
Weight Density and Specific Gravity
3-11
Decay Resistance Thermal Properties
3-15
Electrical Properties
3-21
Coefficient of Friction
3-22
References
3-23
Mechanical Properties of Wood Orthotropic Nature of Wood
4-1
Elastic Properties
4-2
Strength Properties
4-3
Vibration Properties
4-25
Mechanical Properties of Clear StraightGrained Wood
4-26
Natural Characteristics Affecting Mechanical Properties
4-27
Effects of Manufacturing and Service Environments
4-34
References
4-44
Commercial Lumber Hardwood Lumber
5-1
Softwood Lumber
5-7
Purchase of Lumber
5-12
Commonly Used Lumber Abbreviations
5-18
Reference
5-20
Lumber Stress Grades and Design Properties
6-1
Responsibilities and Standards for Stress Grading
6-2
Visually Graded Structural Lumber
6-3
MachineGraded Structural Lumber
6-7
Adjustment of Properties for Design Use
6-11
References
6-14
Fastenings
7-1
Nails
7-2
Staples
7-8
Wood Screws
7-9
Lag Screws
7-11
Bolts
7-14
Connector Joints
7-18
MultipleFastener Joints
7-24
Metal Plate Connectors
7-25
Fastener Head Embedment
7-26
References
7-27
Structural Analysis Equations Deformation Equations
8-1
Stress Equations
8-4
Stability Equations
8-8
References
8-11
Adhesive Bonding of Wood Materials Adhesion to Wood
9-1
Surface Properties of Wood Adherends
9-2
Physical Properties of Wood Adherends
9-6
Adhesives
9-9
Bonding Process
9-15
Bonded Joints
9-18
Testing and Performance
9-20
References
9-23
Woodbased Composites and Panel Products
10-1
Scope
10-2
Adhesive Considerations
10-3
General Manufacturing Issues Standards for WoodBased Panels
10-4
References
11-21
Drying and Control of Moisture Content and Dimensional Changes Determination of Moisture Content
12-1
Recommended Moisture Content
12-3
Drying of Wood
12-5
Moisture Control During Transit and Storage
12-14
Dimensional Changes in Wood
12-15
Wood Care and Installation During Construction
12-18
References
12-20
Biodeterioration of Wood Fungus Damage and Control
13-1
Insect Damage and Control
13-8
Marine Borer Damage and Control
13-13
References
13-15
Wood Preservation
14-1
Wood Preservatives
14-2
Effect of Species on Penetration
14-12
Preparation of Timber for Treatment
14-17
Application of Preservatives
14-19
Handling and Seasoning of Timber After Treatment
14-24
Quality Assurance for Treated Wood
14-25
References
14-26
Finishing of Wood Factors Affecting Finish Performance
15-1
Control of Water or Moisture in Wood
15-9
Types of Exterior Wood Finishes
15-14
Application of Wood Finishes
15-19
Finish Failure or Discoloration
15-24
Finishing of Interior Wood
15-30
Finishes for Items Used for Food
15-32
Paint Strippers
15-33
LeadBased Paint
15-35
References
15-36
Use of Wood in Buildings and Bridges LightFrame Buildings
16-1
PostFrame and Pole Buildings
16-4
Heavy Timber Buildings
16-6
Timber Bridges
16-9
Considerations for Wood Buildings
16-10
References
16-14
Fire Safety Fire Safety Design and Evaluation
17-1
Fire Performance Characteristics of Wood
17-6
FlameRetardant Treatments
17-12
References
17-13
Round Timbers and Ties Standards and Specifications Material Requirements
18-1
Availability
18-2
Form
18-3
Weight and Volume
18-5
Durability
18-6
Strength Properties
18-7
References
18-8
Specialty Treatments Plasticizing Wood
19-1
Modified Woods
19-4
PaperBased Plastic Laminates
19-12
References
19-14
Glossary
G-1
Index
1-1
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