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Taxonomy and Distribution
Food and Feeding Habits
Phenology Courtship and Nesting Success
Nest Building Egg Laying and Incubation
adult cardinals areas begging calls behavior bill body temperature breeding season brood cardinal nests cardinal populations cardinals sometimes cardinals typically cardinals usually carotenoids chip calls clutch Cowbirds days after fledging days after hatching dispersal display egg tooth eggs energy example extra-pair copulations factors feeders feeding rates feeding stations female cardinals fledged young fledglings flight foraging habitat House Sparrows increase incubating individuals insects interactions juveniles leave the nest Leonard Lee less male and female male cardinals Maslowski Photo mates molt nestling cardinals nestling period Northern Cardinals Northern Mockingbirds oviduct pair pair-bond parasites parents percent perches plumage potential predators prey probably produce proso millet Pyrrhuloxias range recently fledged repertoires reproductive success result revealed Richard Day roosting shrubs singing song types songbirds species of birds sperm Steve Maslowski sunflower seeds syllables tail feathers territories trees utter variation vegetation Vermilion Cardinal wings winter young birds young cardinals
Page 117 - LC 1966. The development of grasping and balancing coordination in nestlings of seven species of altricial birds. Wilson Bull.