Equality and diversity: phenomenological investigations of prejudice and discrimination
Examples of prejudice against Jews, women, African-Americans, and other minority groups are reported almost daily by the media. Despite educational programs to counteract prejudicial attitudes, this seemingly intractable problem remains an ongoing concern, not only in the United States but throughout the world. It is an interesting and often overlooked fact that the subject of prejudice was the focus of major works by three prominent philosophers in the phenomenological tradition, works that still offer many insights into contemporary attempts to understand this social problem: Jean-Paul Sartre's "Anti-Semite and Jew", Simone de Beauvoir's "The Second Sex", and Alfred Schutz's essay "Equality and the Meaning Structure of the Social World". Michael Barber examines this striking convergence of interests by these three philosophers and explores the significance of phenomenology for analysing prejudice as expressed in anti-Semitism, sexism, and racism. Part One first examines Edmund Husserl's highly abstract use of the term "prejudice" and then considers how Sartre, de Beauvoir, and Schutz applied their own unique modifications of Husserl's phenomenological system to various manifestations of prejudice. In their writings, Barber uncovers a dialectic between a modernist concern for equality and a postmodernist fear of the suppression of "alterity" -- the distinctive qualities of the groups against whom prejudice is directed. In Part Two Barber articulates a theoretical system of ethics that is innovative in reconciling the very different ethical perspectives of Karl-Otto Apel and Emmanuel Levinas. The book concludes by drawing on this unique synthesis to provide an ethical warrant for affirmative action, illuminating the unacknowledged presuppositions at play in debates over this issue.
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Prejudice and the Spirit
Reason and the Critique of Reason in Sartres
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affirmative action African-Americans Alfred Schutz ambiguity anti-Semitism Apel's transcendental argues argument bad faith blacks causal chapter claims compensation competence consciousness constitutes critical critique discourse ethics Edmund Husserl eidetic enological equality essay essence ethical theory existential experience face to face fact for-itself freedom Goldman Habermas horizon human Husserl Husserlian Ibid ical ideal in-itself insofar interpretation intersubjective Jean-Paul Sartre Judith Jarvis Thomson Justice and Reverse Karl-Otto Apel language-games Levinas Levinasian life-world Martinus Nyhoff Maurice Natanson meaning Merleau-Ponty minorities moral norms Nothingness notion object one's oneself ontology Other's phenome phenomenological reduction phenomenology of alterity philosophy policies position Preferential prejudice present presupposes presuppositions principle question Racial Preference racism rationality reciprocity reflection relationship responsibility Reverse Discrimination Rosenfeld Sartre's Second Sex Simone de Beauvoir social world Sowell subjectivity theoretical Thomas Sowell tion tive Totality and Infinity trans transcendental pragmatics typifications University Press validity white males women York