Spatial Databases: With Application to GIS

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Morgan Kaufmann, 2002 - Computers - 410 pages
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Spatial Databases is the first unified, in-depth treatment of special techniques for dealing with spatial data, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). This book surveys various techniques, such as spatial data models, algorithms, and indexing methods, developed to address specific features of spatial data that are not adequately handled by mainstream DBMS technology.


The book also reviews commercial solutions to geographic data handling: ArcInfo, ArcView, and Smallworld GISs; and two extensions to the relational model, PostgreSQL and Oracle Spatial. The authors examine these underlying GIS technologies, assess their strengths and weaknesses, and consider specific uses for which each product is best suited.

* Examines the strengths of various query languages and approaches to query processing.
* Explains the use of computational geometry in spatial databases GISs, providing necessary background and an in-depth look at key algorithms.
* Covers spatial access methods, including the R-tree and several space-driven structures, and is filled with dozens of helpful illustrations.

  

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Contents

An Introduction to Spatial Databases
1
11 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS DBMSs
3
112 Modeling Applications
6
113 Physical Data Management
8
12 VOCABULARY IN GEOSPATIAL DATABASE APPLICATIONS
9
13 GEOSPATIAL DATA MANIPULATION
11
131 Simple Operations on Themes
12
132 Further Theme Operations
18
The Rectangle Intersection Example
164
54 POLYGON PARTITIONING
167
541 Trapezoidalization of a Simple Polygon
168
542 Triangulation of Simple Polygons
170
543 Convex Partitioning
173
55 ALGORITHMS FOR SPATIAL DATABASES
175
551 Area Size of a Polygon and Related Operations
176
552 Point in Polygon
177

133 Other Typical CIS Operations
20
14 DBMS SUPPORT FOR GEOSPATIAL DATA
21
141 Use of a Relational DBMS
22
142 Loosely Coupled Approach
24
143 Integrated Approach Based on DBMS Extensibility
25
16 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
26
Representation of Spatial Objects
29
21 GEOGRAPHIC SPACE MODELING
31
212 FieldBased Models
34
22 REPRESENTATION MODES
35
222 Vector Mode
38
223 HalfPlane Representation
42
23 REPRESENTING THE GEOMETRY OF A COLLECTION OF OBJECTS
46
231 Spaghetti Model
47
233 Topological Model
49
24 SPATIAL DATA FORMATS AND EXCHANGE STANDARDS
51
241 Overview of Current Spatial Data Formats
52
242 The TIGERLine Data Format
54
243 Recent Standardization Initiatives
61
25 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
64
Logical Models and Query Languages
69
31 REFERENCE SCHEMAS
71
312 Highway Network Among Cities Schema 2
72
32 REFERENCE QUERIES
73
33 SPATIAL ABSTRACT DATA TYPES
75
332 Designing Spatial ADTs
80
Topological Predicates
85
34 RELATIONAL MODELS EXTENDED WITH ADT
88
341 Representation of the Reference Schemas
89
342 Reference Queries
92
35 OBJECTORIENTED MODELS
100
352 Representation of Reference Schemas
101
353 Spatial Classes
104
354 Reference Queries
106
36 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
108
The Constraint Data Model
113
41 SPATIAL DATA MODELING WITH CONSTRAINTS
114
411 Point Sets as Infinite Relations
115
412 Finitely Representing Infinite Relations
117
413 Evaluating Queries on Infinite Instances
120
414 Summary of the Constraint Data Model
122
42 THE LINEAR CONSTRAINT DATA MODEL
123
421 Data Representation
124
FirstOrder Queries
125
Algebraic Queries
128
43 MODELING ENTITYBASED DATA
134
432 Queries
136
44 MODELING FIELDBASED DATA AND MOVING OBJECTS
139
441 Elevation Data
140
442 Moving Objects
141
443 Queries on FieldBased Data and Moving Points
143
45 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
145
Computational Geometry
149
51 AN INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY
150
521 Basic Concepts of Algorithms
151
522 Algorithm Analysis
152
523 Optimality
153
524 Data Structures
155
53 USEFUL ALGORITHMIC STRATEGIES
157
The HalfPlane Intersection Example
161
553 Polyline Intersections
179
554 Polygon Intersections
186
555 Windowing and Clipping
192
56 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
197
562 Sources on Algorithms
198
Spatial Access Methods
201
61 ISSUES IN SAM DESIGN
204
611 What Is Expected of a SAM?
205
612 Illustration with a B+ Tree
206
613 SpaceDriven Versus DataDriven SAMs
207
62 SPACEDRIVEN STRUCTURES
208
621 The Grid File
209
622 The Linear Quadtree
219
623 The zOrdering Tree
227
624 Remarks on Linear SAM
237
631 The Original RTree
238
632 The RTree
252
633 RTree Packing
255
634 The R+ Tree
257
635 Cost Models
259
64 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
261
Query Processing
267
71 AN INTRODUCTION TO QUERY PROCESSING
269
72 TWO OPTIMAL IO ALGORITHMS
271
722 Distribution Sweeping Rectangle Intersection
274
73 SPATIAL JOIN
279
731 zOrdering Spatial Join
280
732 Joining Two RTrees
284
733 Spatial Hash Join
288
74 COMPLEX QUERIES
292
742 Spatial Joins with Refinement Step
296
743 Multiway Joins
300
75 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
303
Commercial Systems
311
81 AN INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS
312
812 Interacting with a GIS or with a Spatial DBMS
315
82 ARCINFO
317
822 Spatial and Typological Information in ArcInfo
319
823 Representation of Sample Schemas
328
824 Querying with ArcInfo
332
83 ARCVIEW GIS
341
831 ArcView Spatial Model
342
832 Querying with ArcView
343
84 SMALLWORLD
347
842 Querying with Smallworld Object Browser
348
843 Discussion
351
85 ORACLE EXTENSION FOR HANDLING SPATIAL DATA
352
852 Spatial Data Model
353
853 Spatial Operations
355
854 Spatial Indexing and Query Processing
357
86 POSTGRESQL
360
861 Geometric Types and Operators
361
862 Creating the Database
363
863 Expressing Queries
364
87 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES
368
Bibliography
373
Index
395
About the Authors
409
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Philippe Rigaux is Assistant Professor of Computer Science at CNAM (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers), where his work focuses on spatial applications for database systems.



Michel Scholl is a Professor of Computer Science at CNAM and a Senior Researcher at INRIA (French Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique). His recent work has focused on spatial databases and digital libraries.



Agnès Voisard is Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the Free University of Berlin and a System Architect at Kivera, Inc. Her research interests include data models for geographic and environmental information systems, interoperability in information systems, and navigation systems.

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