Islamic science and engineering
This introduction to the physical sciences and engineering of the Islamic world is the first to trace the full extent of the Muslim scientific achievement in the period 750-1500. It describes how Muslim scientists and engineers contributed enormously to the technology of medieval Europe.
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Abbasid al-Biruni al-Jazari al-Karaji al-Khazini al-MuqaddasI al-Razi alchemy angle Arabic arch astrolabe astronomers automata axle Baghdad Banu Musa beam bridge built Caliphs canals centre Chapter circle clock construction copper Cordoba cubits Damascus described devices diameter distance distillation early Egypt empire engineering Europe European example feet figure flow gear-wheel gears gold Greek Hellenistic hole horizontal Ibn al-Haytham important Indian instrument Iran Iraq iron irrigation Islamic astronomy Islamic world Khurasan Kitdb known later Latin masonry mathematics measuring mechanical medieval metal method metres mills mines modern Muslim ninth noria North Africa operation original Oxus Persian pipe plate province qanats qibla river Roman rotation Samarqand Sasanid scholars scientists sexagesimal shaft silver sources Spain specific gravities spherical staff stone substances surveyor Syria tank tenth century theory Tigris tions translated treatises trebuchet tube twelfth century Umayyad various vertical water-clocks water-raising machines weight wheel