The Symbolist Movement in the Literature of European Languages

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Anna Balakian, Anna Elizabeth Balakian
John Benjamins Publishing, 1984 - Literary Criticism - 732 pages
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Edited by Anna Balakian, this volume marks the first attempt to discuss Symbolism in a full range of the literatures written in the European languages. The scope of these analyses, which explore Latin America, Scandinavia, Russia, Poland, Hungary, Serbia, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria as well as West European literatures, continues to make the volume a valuable reference today. As René Wellek suggests in his historiographic contribution, the fifty-one contributors not only make us think afresh about individual authors who are giants, but also draw us to reassess schools and movements in their local as well as international contexts. Reviewers comment that this copious and intelligently structured anthology, divided into eight parts, traces the conceptual bases and emergence of an international Symbolist movement, showing the spread of Symbolism to other national literatures from French sources, as well as the symbiotic transformations of Symbolism through appropriation and amalgamation with local literary trends. Several chapters deal with the relationships between literature and the other arts, pointing to Symbolism at work in painting, music, and theatre. Other chapters on the psychological aspects of the Symbolist method connect in interesting ways to a vision of metaphor and myth as virtually musical notation and an experimental emphasis on the play afforded by gaps between words. The volume is a major contribution to the most significant exponents and essential themes of Symbolism. The theoretical, historical, and typological sections of the volume help explain why the impact of this important movement of the fin-de-siècle is still felt today.
  

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
9
PART I THE DELIMITATION OF SYMBOLISM AS A LITERARY MOVEMENT
15
WHAT IS SYMBOLISM?
17
THE STRUCTURE OF THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT
29
INTERNATIONAL REPUTATION AND INTELLECTUAL IMPACT
43
PART II THE FRENCH CÉNACLE
65
THE BACKGROUND OF FRENCH SYMBOLISM
67
THE LANGUAGE OF SYMBOLISM
85
PROBLEMS AND ATTEMPTED SOLUTIONS
425
CONTRIBUTION TO A TYPOLOGY OF SYMBOLIST PAINTING
437
AMERICAN POETRY AND FRENCH SYMBOLISM
455
PART VI THE SYMBOLIST IMPACT ON MUSIC AND ART
469
SYMBOLIST MUSIC
471
MUSICAL SETTINGS OF SYMBOLIST POEMS
483
SYMBOLISM IN ALEXANDER SCRIABINS MUSIC
493
THE SPREAD AND EVOLUTION OF SYMBOLIST IDEALS IN ART
499

SYMBOLIST IMAGERY
101
THE FATE OF SYMBOLISM
119
PART III THE EMERGENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT
125
THE LIBERATED VERSE OF THE ENGLISH TRANSLATORS OF FRENCH SYMBOLISM
127
GERMAN POETS IN THE PROXIMITY OF BAUDELAIRE AND THE SYMBOLISTS
145
REACTIONS TO SYMBOLISM IN SPAIN
157
A SURVEY OF THE HUNGARIAN EXAMPLE
165
ON THE SPREAD OF SYMBOLISM
183
STEFAN GEORGE AND HERWARTH WALDEN
191
SYMBOLISM AND MODERNISM
213
THE SYMBOLIST MODE IN THE SPANISH AMERICAN MODERNIST A NOVEL 18851924
229
PART IV THE CONSOLIDATION AND METAMORPHOSIS OF THE SYMBOLIST IMPRINT
253
STEFAN GEORGES PLACE IN GERMAN AND IN EUROPEAN SYMBOLIST LITERATURE
255
VALÉRY AND HIS INTERNATIONAL REPUTATION
269
THE QUESTION OF SYMBOLISM
279
AN ENGLISH SYMBOLIST?
295
DANNUNZIO AND INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLISM
311
JUAN RAMÓN JIMENEZ AND THE HERITAGE OF SYMBOLISM IN HISPANIC POETRY
335
JORGE GUILLÉN AND THE SYMBOLIST IMPRINT ON THE GENERATION OF THE 1920S
347
THE SYMBOLIST TURN IN ENDRE ADYS POETRY
361
ANDREY BELY AND THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT IN RUSSIA
381
PART V TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES
397
THE PLACE AND FUNCTION OF MYTHS IN SYMBOLIST LITERATURE
399
SYMBOLIST THEATER
413
THE OTHER SYMBOLIST INHERITANCE IN PAINTING
519
THE ESTHETICS OF SYMBOLISM IN FRENCH AND BELGIAN ART
529
PART VII SOME NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES
547
SYMBOLISM IN PORTUGUESE LITERATURE
549
THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT IN BELGIUM
565
I EARLY SCANDINAVIAN SYMBOLISM
575
II SYMBOLISM IN DENMARK
587
SYMBOLISM AND FINNISH LITERATURE
595
SYMBOLISM IN BALTIC LITERATURES
603
POLISH SYMBOLISM
609
CZECH SYMBOLIST POETRY
617
SYMBOLIST ELEMENTS IN SERBIAN POETRY
627
SYMBOLISM IN BULGARIAN LITERATURE
641
SYMBOLISM IN GREECE
647
ASPECTS OF SYMBOLIST POETRY IN THE UNITED STATES
653
PART VIII SYMBOLISM IN OTHER CONTEXTS
659
A PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEW
661
TWO VERSIONS OF THE SYMBOLIST DREAM IN SPANISH AMERICAN LETTERS
669
CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY AND INDEX
679
CONCLUSION
681
BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SYMBOLISM AS AN INTERNATIONAL AND INTERDISCIPLINARY PHENOMENON
699
INDEX
718
The series Comparative History of Literatures in European Languages
733
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About the author (1984)

Rosamel del Valle, known primarily as a poet and essayist in Latin America, came to New York from Chile as a United Nations official in 1946. He contributed regularly to Spanish-language periodicals, writing about life in New York, literary landmarks, and American writers, for whom he expressed a near veneration. He married a French-Canadian co-worker, Therese Dulac, in 1948 and after his retirement returned with her in 1963 to Santiago, where he died in 1965. Anna Balakian is Professor and former Chairman of the Department of Comparative Literature at New York University. Among her many writings are several books on Surrealism, including "Surrealism: the Road to the Absolute, and a critical biography of Andre Breton.