Peaks and Glaciers of Nun Kun: A Record of Pioneer-exploration and Mountaineering in the Punjab Himalaya (Google eBook)

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1909
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Page 95 - ... with frantic efforts to obtain sufficient oxygen to relieve the stifling sensation which threatened to terminate one's existence. During the five nights at our three highest camps no one obtained more than a few snatches of sleep, and four, of whom I was one, practically none at all. Those nights are not easily forgotten, when one lay sleepless on the snow, in the cold, and silence, and darkness, struggling for breath, and counting the slowly dragging hours with a feeling that the strain could...
Page 101 - The question to what height trained mountaineers will be able to cany outfit requisite to camping must be left to the future to decide. With the various obstacles to high climbing more accentuated in proportion to altitude, it seems certain that loads will have to be reduced as altitude increases, until a limit will at last be reached where not enough can be carried to support life and protect the mountaineer against cold and weather. That limit is likely, I fancy, to be found considerably below...
Page 98 - ITS DESOLATE SITUATION IS APPARENT. only partially consumed when saucepans were placed at the ordinary distance above the latter, the rest escaping in smoky ill-smelling fumes. To insure complete combustion it was necessary to give the flame its full height, so that the air could have access to it from every point. With this precaution petroleum in a primus stove makes a more efficient fuel and generates a much greater heat at high altitudes than alcohol used in any apparatus I have seen. The wicks...
Page 95 - ... breath, and counting the slowly dragging hours with a feeling that the strain could not be endured till daylight. It is scarcely necessary to say that even the strongest could not hold out for long against the depressing influence of loss of sleep, combined with the lowering of vital energy due to the scarcity of oxygen at these high altitudes. We were conscious of a distinct decline in strength on the last two days, and after six consecutive days of hard work and five sleepless nights every...
Page 95 - ... energy due to the scarcity of oxygen at these high altitudes. We were conscious of a distinct decline in strength on the last two days, and after six consecutive days of hard work and five sleepless nights every one felt an irresistible desire to relieve the tension by a descent to a lower level. I have elsewhere, in connection with our highest camp in the Chogo Lungma region, at 19,358 feet, where five Europeans were affected in a similar manner during two nights, suggested the possibility that,...
Page 96 - ... matter. The ordinary jacket does not admit sufficient oxygen to insure combustion at high altitudes. The lower half of the jacket, at least, should be made of wiregauze so as to admit all the air possible. We found the low temperature, —4° and —6° Fahr., and even that of 17° and 10° Fahr, with strong wind, trying, at night. Arctic explorers endure temperatures much lower than these without difficulty, but their work lies near sea-level, where the atmospheric pressure is more than double...
Page 172 - ... wind or in an avalanche shooting over a sloping surface, or by the slower process of settling downward, tends to accumulate in columns vertical to the surface with a direction coincident with the line of motion, which latter is determined by the shape and inclination of the slope. The same tendency was observed...
Page 100 - Ibs. up inclines of 25° to 35° in snow ankle-deep, at that altitude, requires strength and endurance. How much higher they could have gone, or up how much sharper slopes, I will not venture an opinion. Savoye expressed grave doubts whether they could carry the same loads up much steeper gradients than were encountered, for at altitudes like these the difficulty of carrying a given load increases enormously with a comparatively slight increase in gradient. These men were certainly more efficient...
Page 186 - ... taken into account. (IV.) A fourth variety of nieve, which I do not remember to have seen mentioned, was found in abundance on the Hispar and its northern branches, particularly the Jutumaru, on those portions where the neve had melted away or become converted into granular and even denser glacial ice. Between the pinnacles the surface of the glacier was honeycombed with pockets or pools of various sizes with perpendicular walls, at the bottom of each of which was a thin layer of finely divided...
Page 97 - But at high altitudes, where vitality has been lowered by hard work, loss of sleep, and deficient oxygénation, where only a closely calculated minimum of clothing and bedding can be carried, an amount really insufficient to protect one against cold, a temperature of zero means a good deal more than it does to the Arctic explorer. The mountaineer at high altitudes is called upon to endure Arctic conditions without the means of protection available to the Arctic explorer. All our party, in addition...

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