History and Precedent in Environmental Design
This book is about a new and different way of approaching and studying the history of the built environment and the use of historical precedents in design. However, although what I am proposing is new for what is currently called architectural history, both my approach and even my conclusions are not that new in other fields, as I discovered when I attempted to find supporting evidence. * In fact, of all the disciplines dealing with various aspects of the study of the past, architectural history seems to have changed least in the ways I am advocating. There is currently a revival of interest in the history of architecture and urban form; a similar interest applies to theory, vernacular design, and culture-environment relations. After years of neglect, the study of history and the use of historical precedent are again becoming important. However, that interest has not led to new approaches to the subject, nor have its bases been examined. This I try to do. In so doing, I discuss a more rigorous and, I would argue, a more valid way of looking at historical data and hence of using such data in a theory of the built environment and as precedent in environmental design. Underlying this is my view of Environment-Behavior Studies CEBS) as an emerging theory rather than as data to help design based on current "theory. " Although this will be the subject of another book, a summary statement of this position may be useful.
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History of What?
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already analysis approach archaeology architectural history areas argued argument artifacts become Binford biology body of evidence built environments changes characteristics classification cognitive comparative complexity concepts contemporary controlled analogy Cozumel critical cross-cultural cultural landscape debate derived disciplines discussed in Chapter domain Dunnell elements emphasis empirical essential ethnoarchaeology ethnographic example experimental archaeology explicit explicitly fact field Figure hence high-style historical data Hodder hominids human behavior hypotheses identify important inferences involves landscape archaeology literature major material culture ments methods models Moreover nature noticeable differences paleontology particular past environments patterns pedestrian pedestrian streets perceptual philosophy of science possible predictions problems questions range Rapoport 1986c reconstructions relevant Renfrew rigorous role scientific seen Segreaves 1982 settings settlements social science sociobiology spaces specific streets subject matter suggested taxonomy tend tested theoretical theory tion topic traditional uniformitarian urban variables variety vernacular