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16 syllables 16-syllable series 24 hours later actual after-effect amount approximately asso association average values calculated causal systems cent central value combination connection constant mean values course decrease derived series distribution double tests duction effect errorless reproduction existence experimental experiments geometrical progression greater Greek alphabet HERMANN EBBINGHAUS increase influence inner intermediate syllables interval intervening members investigations iP.E law of errors learned by heart length less limits measure memorisation mental mental events method natural science Number of deviations number of repetitions number of syllables numerical results occur original series possible reproduction present probable error processes question recited relation of dependence relearning repe repeated saving seconds Section separate series separate values sequence series by skipping series of 16 series of ideas series of syllables similar six series small number stanzas strength Sum of series syllable series taken tion titions transformed series WL A Q
Page xv - There is only one way to do this, and that is to see whether it is possible to obtain, on the presupposition of the correctness of such an hypothesis, well classified, uncontradictory results, and correct anticipations of the future.
Page 49 - Nous voyons maintenant que tout acte de sentiment, de pensée ou de volition en vertu d'une loi universelle imprime en nous une trace plus ou moins profonde, mais indélébile, généralement gravée sur une infinité de traits antérieurs, surchargée plus tard d'une autre infinité de linéaments de toute nature, mais dont l'écriture est néanmoins indéfiniment susceptible de reparaître vive et nette au
Page xiii - direct comprehension of its connections depends above all upon the possibility of applying this method. We all know of what this method consists: an attempt is made to keep constant the mass of conditions which have proven themselves causally connected with a certain result;
Page 75 - It makes the assumption probable that with any considerable number of repetitions a suitable distribution of them over a space of time is decidedly more advantageous than the massing of them at a single time.
Page 98 - As a result of the learning of a series certain connections of the members are therefore actually formed in a reverse as well as in a forward direction. These connections are revealed in this way, that series which are formed out of members thus
Page 10 - end or to begin in the middle of the verse or the sentence leads to new complications because of various and unavoidable disturbances of the meaning. Series of numbers, which I also tried, appeared impracticable for the more thorough tests. Their fundamental elements were too small in number and therefore too easily exhausted. Section
Page 8 - —I have hit upon the following method. Out of the simple consonants of the alphabet and our eleven vowels and diphthongs all possible syllables of a certain sort were constructed, a vowel sound being placed between two consonants. 1
Page 8 - These syllables, about 2,300 in number, were mixed together and then drawn out by chance and used to construct series of different lengths, several of which each time formed the material for a test.
Page iv - In a second group of cases this survival is even more striking. Often, even after years, mental states once present in consciousness return to it with apparent spontaneity and without any act of the will ; that is, they are reproduced involuntarily. Here, <• also, in the majority of cases we at once recognise the returned mental state as one that has already been experienced ; that is,