The Basics of Chemistry (Google eBook)

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Greenwood Publishing Group, Jan 1, 2003 - Science - 373 pages
2 Reviews
Written for students beginning a formal study of chemistry, this volume encompasses many different topics in and approaches to introductory chemistry. Chapters are devoted to topics such as the atom, elements and the periodic table, bonding, equilibrium and kinetics, solutions, acids and bases, and chemical reactions. Several chapters discuss broad areas of chemistry including organic chemistry, biochemistry, environmental chemistry, and industrial chemistry. Illustrations and diagrams help the student understand chemical structures and reactions, and numerous tables present a wealth of reference information. The historical developments of chemical concepts are traced, and biographical information is provided on key individuals responsible for the development of modern chemistry. Appendices include an extensive bibliography, a glossary of over 400 chemical terms, an overview of Nobel laureates in chemistry, and an element reference table. This book will be of use not only to students, but also to anyone seeking an overview of the field. Teachers of all grades can use Basics of Chemistry as a practical general reference.
  

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Contents

Introduction Chemistry and Its Divisions
1
The Scientific Enterprise
2
What Is Chemistry?
3
Divisions of Chemistry
4
A Brief History of Chemistry
7
Greek Science
9
Alchemy
11
Chemistry in the Middle Ages
13
Chemical Definitions of Acids and Bases
156
Strengths of Acids and Bases
159
Acid Concentration
160
pH and pOH
161
Neutralization Reactions
163
Buffers
166
Summary
169
Electrochemistry
171

The Birth of Modern Chemistry
17
The Phlogiston Theory
19
Pneumatic Chemistry
20
Lavoisier
25
The Atom
31
Dalton and the Birth of the Atomic Theory
33
GayLussac and Avogadros Hypothesis
34
The Divisible Atom
35
Atomic Structure
38
Quantum Mechanics
40
A Modern View of the Atom
44
Atomic Mass Atomic Numbers and Isotopes
45
Summary
46
Atoms Combined
49
Naming Elements
50
Naming Compounds
51
Writing Chemical Formulas
54
Types of Reactions
55
From Molecules to Moles
56
Elements and the Periodic Table
61
The Modern Periodic Table
64
d and f Block Elements
67
Summary
69
Chemical Bonding
71
Dot Formulas the Octet Rule and Ionic Bonds
74
Covalent Bonds
76
Polar Molecules and Hydrogen Bonds
78
Bond Energies
79
The Metallic Bond
80
Modern Bonding Theory
82
Intermolecular Forces and the Solid and Liquid States
85
Characteristics of Solids Liquids and Gases
86
Crystalline Solids
90
Amorphous Solids
92
Liquids
93
Material Science
95
Gases
99
The Gas Laws
102
The Ideal Gas Law
106
Partial Pressure and Vapor Pressure
107
Applications of the Gas Laws
109
Phase Changes and Thermochemistry
113
Heating Curves
115
Calorimetry
118
Heat of Reaction
120
Applications of Heat of Reactions
122
Solutions
125
The Solution Process
126
Electrolytes
128
Concentration of Solutions
129
Solubility of Gases
130
Colligative Properties
131
Reactions of Solutions
134
Colloids and Suspensions
136
Kinetics and Equilibrium
139
The Collision Theory
140
Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
142
Reaction Mechanisms and Catalysis
144
Chemical Equilibrium
147
Le Chateliers Principle
149
The Equilibrium Constant
151
Ammonia and the Haber Process
152
Acids and Bases
155
Oxidation and Reduction
176
Oxidation Numbers
177
Electrochemical Cells
179
Electrolysis
184
Batteries
185
Corrosion
189
Electroplating
190
Commercial Applications and Electrorefining
191
Summary
193
Organic Chemistry
195
Organic Compounds
198
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
199
Aromatic Hydrocarbons Benzene
205
Functional Groups and Organic Families
207
Petroleum
216
Organic Products
219
Summary
220
Biochemistry
221
Lipids
226
Proteins
229
Nucleic Acids
233
Biotechnology
236
Nuclear Chemistry
241
Radioactive Decay and Nuclear Reactions
243
HalfLife and Radiometric Dating
244
Nuclear Binding Energy Fission and Fusion
246
Fusion and Stellar Evolution
251
Transmutation
252
Nuclear Medicine
254
Radiation Units and Detection
255
Biological Effects of Radiation
257
Summary
259
Environmental Chemistry
261
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
262
Acid Rain
266
The Greenhouse Effect
270
Water Quality
273
Air Pollution
278
Pesticides
281
Summary
287
The Chemical Industry
289
Acids and Alkalis
290
Explosives
292
Synthetic Dyes
293
Synthetic Fibers and Plastics
297
Synthetic Rubber
299
Petrochemicals
301
Industry Histories
302
Summary
307
Chemistry Experiments
309
Chemistry Experimentation
312
Chemical Activities
313
A Future in Chemistry
327
Careers in Chemistry
330
Professional Development and the American Chemical Society
332
Glossary
335
Brief Timeline of Chemistry
351
Nobel Laureates in Chemistry
355
Table of the Elements
361
Selected Bibliography
363
Author Index
365
Subject Index
369
Copyright

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About the author (2003)

RICHARD MYERS is Professor of Environmental Science at Alaska Pacific University. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in chemistry, statistics, and environmental science. Dr. Myers' published research includes work on air quality, water quality, science education, and science and the humanities.

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