## The Human Being as a Logical Thinker (Google eBook)The aim of this book is to explain human rationality. The fundamental principles of human thought are stated in terms of Balzer's Principles, and their operations in everyday life are illustrated. The natural numbers are defined and explained in a fresh fashion. Paradoxes, including those of class theory and material implication, which have signaled that all is not well in our logical systems, are laid to rest here. The explanation of human rationality has more than logical interest, for it touches upon the human values embedded in our rationality. The book carries the message that all human beings are fundamentally equal. |

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### Contents

3 | |

5 | |

7 | |

ONE The Fundamental Principles of Human Thought Section 1 Classification | 27 |

Classes | 31 |

Truth and Falsity | 35 |

Quantifiers | 43 |

SubClasses | 45 |

The Paradoxes of Implication | 75 |

THREE Arithmetic Section 12 The Natural Numbers | 79 |

The Logic of Arithmetic | 89 |

FOUR Formal Logic Section 14 The Development of Logic in Western Culture | 101 |

Section IS Class Symbols and Existence | 115 |

Sense Reference and Existence | 121 |

Some Further Observations | 125 |

FIVE The Other Animals Section 18 Cleverness in Animals | 129 |

The External World | 49 |

The Self | 53 |

Identity | 57 |

The Human Being as a Logical Thinker | 61 |

TWO Paradoxes Section 10 The Paradoxes of Classes | 65 |

Conclusion | 137 |

End Notes | 141 |

145 | |

147 | |

### Common terms and phrases

able allows animal answer antecedent apply argument Aristotle Aristotle's arithmetic asked Balzer barber paradox Berkeley Berkeley's Bertrand Russell Boole Boole's C.I. Lewis call a cat Cantor cardinal number cat a cat class a book class theory classified color conditional statement consequent count culture daisy David Hume definition depends Development of Logic example existence explain external world false finger Frege human Hume Ibid ideas identity inference instance-to-instance correspondence jelly beans Journal of Value Kneale language Lassie logicians Martha Kneale material implication mathematics mind moods natural numbers necessary connection one-to-one correspondence operate particular perceptions person plainly premises principle problem proposition quantifiers rational reasoning regarded relation Russell's paradox second ordinal sense sentence series of instances set theory Stoics sub-classes syllogism things thought tion touch a red-hot true truth and falsity universal valid Value Inquiry veridical paradox word heterological world view