Ecological Risk Assessment, Second Edition (Google eBook)

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CRC Press, Dec 6, 2006 - Technology & Engineering - 680 pages
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The definitive reference in its field, Ecological Risk Assessment, Second Edition details the latest advances in science and practice. In the fourteen years since the publication of the best-selling first edition, ecological risk assessment (ERA) has moved from the margins into the spotlight. It is now commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds, and other environmental management issues.

Delineating the processes for performing an ERA, the book begins by defining the field, then goes on to describe its relationship to other environmental assessment practices and its organizational framework. The book also includes a chapter on ecological epidemiology, which has previously been treated as a type of ERA, but is now recognized as a distinct practice in itself. It explores important concepts in the ERA process including probability, uncertainty, scale, mode of action and multiple causes.

Reflecting changes in the field, the book’s scope has been broadened to include discussions of the application of ERA to agents other than chemical contaminants. The multitude of illustrative figures provides a flavor for the diverse practice of ERA. The author has re-organized the material, presenting a unitary process of ERA that is applicable to various problems, scales, and mandates. He keeps the emphasis squarely on providing clear, scientifically sound, and unbiased technical advice on the risks from chemicals and chemical mixtures.

  

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Contents

Introduction to Ecological Risk Assessment
1
Defining the Field
3
11 PREDICTIVE VS RETROSPECTIVE RISK ASSESSMENT
4
12 RISKS BENEFITS AND COSTS
5
132 COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS
6
133 PERMITTING RELEASES
7
1332 Effluents and Wastes
8
135 REMEDIATION AND RESTORATION
9
22912 Ionizing Organic Chemicals
275
22914 Aquatic Plants
276
2292 BENTHIC INVERTEBRATE UPTAKE
277
2293 TERRESTRIAL PLANT UPTAKE
278
22933 Empirical Models for Organic Chemicals
281
22935 Plant Tissue Type
283
2294 EARTHWORM UPTAKE
284
2295 TERRESTRIAL ARTHROPOD UPTAKE
286

136 PERMITTING AND MANAGING LAND USES
10
14 SOCIOPOLITICAL PURPOSES OF RISK ASSESSMENT
12
153 STAKEHOLDERS
13
Other Types of Assessments
15
22 SETTING STANDARDS
16
25 TECHNOLOGYBASED RULES
17
27 PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE
18
28 ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT
19
29 ANALOGY
20
211 HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
21
Ecological Risk Assessment Frameworks
25
32 ALTERNATIVE FRAMEWORKS
27
321 WHOINTEGRATED FRAMEWORK
28
322 MULTIPLE ACTIVITIES
29
323 ECOLOGICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
30
324 CAUSAL CHAIN FRAMEWORK
31
33 EXTENDED FRAMEWORKS
33
341 SCREENING vs DEFINITIVE ASSESSMENTS
35
342 BASELINE vs ALTERNATIVES ASSESSMENTS
36
36 CONCLUSIONS
37
Ecological Epidemiology and Causal Analysis
39
41 BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS
40
42 BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
42
43 CAUSAL ANALYSIS
44
431 IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE CAUSES
47
4312 Developing the List
49
432 ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE
50
4321 Evidence of Cooccurrence
51
4322 Evidence of Sufficiency
52
4324 Evidence from Manipulation
53
433 CHARACTERIZING CAUSES
54
4332 Diagnostic Protocols and Keys
55
4334 StrengthofEvidence Analysis
57
434 ITERATION OF CAUSAL ANALYSIS
67
45 RISK ASSESSMENT IN ECOEPIDEMIOLOGY
68
Variability Uncertainty and Probability
69
512 UNCERTAINTY
70
514 COMBINED VARIABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY
71
516 IGNORANCE AND CONFUSION
72
FREQUENCY vs BELIEF
73
CATEGORICAL vs CONDITIONAL
74
531 FREQUENTIST STATISTICS
75
532 BAYESIAN STATISTICS
77
533 RESAMPLING STATISTICS
78
534 OTHER APPROACHES
79
542 DESIRE TO AVOID EXCESSIVE CONSERVATISM
80
545 PLANNING SAMPLING AND TESTING
81
547 AIDING DECISION MAKING
82
552 CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
83
553 DATA DISTRIBUTIONS
84
554 STATISTICAL MODELING
85
555 MONTE CARLO ANALYSIS AND UNCERTAINTY PROPAGATION
86
557 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
88
558 LISTING AND QUALITATIVE EVALUATION
89
561 DEFINING EXPOSURE DISTRIBUTIONS
90
562 DEFINING EFFECTS DISTRIBUTIONS
91
563 ESTIMATING RISK DISTRIBUTIONS
92
57 PARAMETERS TO TREAT AS UNCERTAIN
93
58 SUMMARY
94
Dimensions Scales and Levels of Organization
95
62 SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALES
98
63 REGIONAL SCALE
100
642 TEMPORAL DURATION
101
645 SEVERITY OF THE EFFECTS
102
647 WHAT TO DO WITH MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS?
103
Modes and Mechanisms of Action
105
72 TESTING FOR MECHANISMS
109
Mixed and Multiple Agents
111
811 METHODS BASED ON WHOLE MIXTURES
112
812 METHODS BASED ON TESTS OF COMPONENTS
115
8121 Simple Similar Action and Concentration Addition
116
8122 Independent Action and Response Addition
118
8123 Interactive Action
121
813 INTEGRATION OF COMPLEX CHEMICAL MIXTURES
122
82 MULTIPLE AND DIVERSE AGENTS
123
821 CATEGORIZE AND COMBINE AGENTS
125
824 SCREEN EFFECTS
126
825 SIMPLE ADDITIVE EFFECTS
127
827 MECHANISTIC MODELS OF COMBINED EFFECTS
128
Quality Assurance
129
91 DATA QUALITY
130
912 SECONDARY DATA
132
913 DEFAULTS AND ASSUMPTIONS
134
914 REPRESENTING DATA QUALITY
135
92 MODEL QUALITY
136
93 QUALITY OF PROBABILISTIC ANALYSES
139
94 ASSESSMENT QUALITY
142
942 PEER REVIEW OF THE ASSESSMENT
143
95 SUMMARY
144
Planning and Problem Formulation
145
Impetus and Mandate
147
Goals and Objectives
149
Management Options
151
Agents and Sources
153
132 ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMS
154
136 SCREENING SOURCES AND AGENTS
155
Environmental Description
157
Exposure Scenarios
161
Assessment Endpoints
163
161 ASSESSMENT ENDPOINTS AND LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
166
162 GENERIC ASSESSMENT ENDPOINTS
167
1622 FUNCTIONALLY DEFINED GENERIC ENDPOINTS
168
1623 APPLYING GENERIC ENDPOINTS
170
163 MAKING GENERIC ASSESSMENT ENDPOINTS SPECIFIC
171
164 ENDPOINTS BASED ON OBJECTIVES HIERARCHIES
174
Conceptual Models
177
172 FORMS OF CONCEPTUAL MODELS
180
173 CREATING CONCEPTUAL MODELS
181
174 LINKAGE TO OTHER CONCEPTUAL MODELS
187
Analysis Plans
189
182 REFERENCE SITES AND REFERENCE INFORMATION
191
1822 MODELDERIVED INFORMATION
192
1824 INFORMATION CONCERNING A REGIONAL REFERENCE
194
1826 POSITIVE REFERENCE INFORMATION
195
Analysis of Exposure
197
Source Identification and Characterization
199
192 UNKNOWN SOURCES
200
193 SUMMARY
201
Sampling Analysis and Assays
203
202 SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION
204
203 ENCOUNTERED DATA
205
206 WATER
208
208 SOIL
209
2010 BIOASSAYS
212
2011 BIOSURVEYS
213
2012 SAMPLING ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITIES
214
2013 CONCLUSIONS
215
Mathematical Models of Chemical Transport and Fate
217
2121 EMISSIONS OR LOADINGS
218
2122 POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCES
219
213 FORMULATING MASS BALANCE MODELS
220
2133 TRANSPORT RATES
222
2134 EMISSIONS
224
2136 COMPLEXITY VALIDITY AND CONFIDENCE LIMITS
225
214 ILLUSTRATION OF A SIMPLE MASS BALANCE MODEL
226
2142 CONCENTRATION CALCULATION
227
21423 Outflow in Water
228
2143 FUGACITY CALCULATION
229
2144 DISCUSSION
231
215 CHEMICALS OF CONCERN AND MODELS SIMULATING THEIR BEHAVIOR
232
21512 Level II
233
21515 Fugacity Models
234
21521 Plume Models in General
235
21524 Soil Models
236
21526 Miscellaneous Models
237
21532 Veterinary Medicines
239
21533 Biocides
240
216 CONCLUDING THOUGHTS ON SELECTING AND APPLYING MODELS
241
Exposure to Chemicals and Other Agents
243
221 EXPOSURE MODELS
245
223 EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS IN SEDIMENT
247
224 EXPOSURE TO CONTAMINANTS IN SOIL
250
22411 Partial Chemical Extraction and Normalization
251
22412 Input Form of the Chemical
252
24413 Chemical Interactions
253
225 EXPOSURE OF TERRESTRIAL PLANTS
254
2253 WETLAND PLANT EXPOSURES
255
226 EXPOSURE OF SOIL INVERTEBRATES
256
2262 SOIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS
257
2281 EXPOSURE MODELS BASED ON EXTERNAL MEASURES
258
22812 Inhalation Exposure
259
22814 Spatial Issues in Wildlife Exposure
261
22815 Temporal Issues in Wildlife Exposure
262
22816 Exposure Modifying Factors
263
22823 Inhalation Rates
265
22824 Soil and Sediment Consumption
266
229 UPTAKE MODELS
268
2291 AQUATIC ORGANISM UPTAKE
271
22911 Neutral Organics
273
2296 TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE UPTAKE
287
2211 EXPOSURE TO NATURAL EXTREME EVENTS
291
2214 PRESENTING THE EXPOSURE CHARACTERIZATION
294
Analysis of Effects
295
ExposureResponse Relationships
297
231 APPROACHES TO EXPOSURERESPONSE
301
2313 STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
302
2314 INTERPOLATION
303
2322 TIME AS EXPOSURE AND RESPONSE
305
2323 COMBINED CONCENTRATION AND DURATION
306
2324 NONMONOTONIC RELATIONSHIPS
307
2325 CATEGORICAL VARIABLES
308
2326 EXPOSURERESPONSE FROM FIELD DATA
309
2327 RESIDUERESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS
313
233 TOXICODYNAMICSMECHANISTIC INTERNAL EXPOSURERESPONSE
317
2331 TOXICODYNAMICS OF METALS ON GILLS
318
234 INDIRECT EFFECTS
319
Testing
321
242 CHEMICAL OR MATERIAL TESTS
323
2421 AQUATIC TESTS
324
2422 SEDIMENT TESTS
325
2423 SOIL TESTS
326
2424 ORAL AND OTHER WILDLIFE EXPOSURES
327
243 MICROCOSMS AND MESOCOSMS
328
244 EFFLUENT TESTS
332
245 MEDIA TESTS
333
2451 CONTAMINATED WATER TESTS
337
2452 CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TESTS
338
2453 CONTAMINATED SOIL TESTS
339
2454 AMBIENT MEDIA TESTS WITH WILDLIFE
340
246 FIELD TESTS
341
2462 FIELD TESTS OF PLANTS AND SOIL ORGANISMS
343
247 TESTING ORGANISMS
344
248 TESTING OTHER NONCHEMICAL AGENTS
345
Biological Surveys
347
251 AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS
348
2511 PERIPHYTON
349
2512 PLANKTON
350
2514 BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES
351
252 TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS
353
2522 WILDLIFE SURVEYS
354
253 PHYSIOLOGICAL HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
355
254 UNCERTAINTIES IN BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS
356
OrganismLevel Extrapolation Models
357
2611 CHEMICAL DOMAINS FOR SARs
358
2613 STATE OF SARs
359
2621 CLASSIFICATION AND SELECTION
360
2623 SPECIES SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS
361
2624 REGRESSION MODELS
366
2625 TEMPORAL EXTRAPOLATION OF EXPOSURERESPONSE MODELS
367
2626 FACTORS DERIVED FROM STATISTICAL MODELS
368
2627 ALLOMETRIC SCALING
371
2628 TOXICOKINETIC MODELING FOR EXTRAPOLATION
372
2629 MULTIPLE AND COMBINED APPROACHES
373
2632 BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES
374
2633 WILDLIFE
375
2634 SOIL INVERTEBRATES AND PLANTS
376
2635 SOIL PROCESSES
378
2637 SOIL PROPERTIES
379
264 SUMMARY
381
Population Modeling
383
271 BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
385
2713 REPRESENTATION AND PROPAGATION OF UNCERTAINTY
386
272 APPROACHES TO POPULATION ANALYSIS
387
2722 PROJECTION MATRICES
389
2723 AGGREGATED MODELS
393
2724 METAPOPULATION MODELS
394
2725 INDIVIDUALBASED MODELS
395
273 APPLICATIONS TO TOXIC CHEMICALS
397
2731 QUANTIFYING UNCERTAINTIES IN INDIVIDUALTOPOPULATION EXTRAPOLATIONS
398
2732 LIFE HISTORYBASED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT
401
2733 QUANTIFYING IMPACTS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURES ON RISK OF EXTINCTION
403
2734 QUANTIFYING IMPACTS OF CHEMICALS ON METAPOPULATIONS
406
2735 INDIVIDUALBASED MODELS
408
274 FUTURE OF POPULATION MODELING IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT
410
Ecosystem Effects Modeling
413
282 ECOSYSTEM RISK ASSESSMENT
414
2821 ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT ENDPOINTS
415
2831 PHYSICAL ECOSYSTEM MODELS
416
2832 ECOSYSTEM NETWORK ANALYSIS
417
2833 COMPARTMENT MODELS
420
2834 EXISTING ECOSYSTEM RISK MODELS
421
28343 IFEM
422
2842 MODEL ADAPTATION AND DEVELOPMENT
423
28421 Model Structure
424
28424 ExposureResponse Functions
425
28425 Data
426
2851 STRUCTURALLY DYNAMIC MODELS
427
286 ECOSYSTEM MODELS RISK ASSESSMENT AND DECISION MAKING
428
2862 ATRAZINE LEVELS OF CONCERN
429
287 MODELS OR MODELERS
431
Risk Characterization
433
Criteria and Benchmarks
435
292 SCREENING BENCHMARKS
437
2923 BENCHMARKS BASED ON EXPOSURERESPONSE MODELS
438
2927 EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING BENCHMARKS
439
29210 SUMMARY OF SCREENING BENCHMARKS
440
Integrating Exposure and ExposureResponse
441
302 EXPOSURE IS DISTRIBUTED AND RESPONSE IS FIXED
442
303 BOTH EXPOSURE AND RESPONSE ARE DISTRIBUTED
443
304 INTEGRATED SIMULATION MODELS
445
305 INTEGRATION OF SENSE AND NONSENSE
446
306 INTEGRATION IN SPACE
448
307 EXAMPLES
450
3074 BIOACCUMULATIVE CONTAMINANTS IN A STREAM
451
3076 ATRAZINE
452
308 SUMMARY
453
Screening Characterization
455
3111 QUOTIENTS
456
3112 SCORING SYSTEMS
457
3121 SCREENING CHEMICALS AT SITES
458
31211 Screening Against Background
459
31212 Screening Against Detection Limits
461
31213 Screening Against Waste Constituents
462
31216 Screening Species Against Area
464
3123 SCREENING MEDIA
465
3127 PRESENTATION OF A SITE SCREENING ASSESSMENT
466
313 EXAMPLES
467
Definitive Risk Characterization by Weighing the Evidence
469
A SIMPLE AND CLEAR INFERENCE METHOD
471
323 INFERENCE TO THE BEST CONCLUSION AT CONTAMINATED SITES
473
32311 Aquatic Organisms
475
32312 Benthic Invertebrates
476
32313 Soil Exposure of Plants Invertebrates and Microbial Communities
477
32314 Multimedia Exposure of Wildlife
478
32315 Body Burdens of Endpoint Organisms
481
3232 AMBIENT MEDIA TOXICITY TESTS
482
3233 BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS
487
3234 BIOMARKERS AND PATHOLOGIES
490
3235 WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE
492
32351 Weighting Considerations
494
3236 RISK ESTIMATION
498
3237 FUTURE RISKS
499
324 EXAMPLES
500
3242 CHARACTERIZING CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT RISKS
502
3243 CHARACTERIZING WILDLIFE RISKS
503
3244 CHARACTERIZING PESTICIDE RISKS
504
3245 CHARACTERIZING EFFLUENT RISKS
505
325 INTERPRETATION
506
Comparative Risk Characterization
509
331 METHODS OF COMPARATIVE RISK CHARACTERIZATION
510
3312 RISK CLASSIFICATION
511
3316 ECONOMIC UNITS
513
Characterizing Variability Uncertainty and Incomplete Knowledge
515
342 CHARACTERIZING UNCERTAINTY
516
343 UNCERTAINTY AND WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE
517
344 BIASES
518
346 CONCLUSIONS
519
Risk Management
521
Reporting and Communicating Ecological Risks
523
352 COMMUNICATING ECOLOGICAL RISKS
525
Decision Making and Ecological Risks
529
363 MINIMIZING RISKS
530
367 DECISION ANALYSIS
531
Integration of Human Health Risk Assessment
533
372 INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISKS
534
3722 INTERDEPENDENCE
535
373 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION AND HUMAN WELFARE
536
Integration of Risk Law Ethics Economics and Preferences
537
382 ECOLOGICAL RISK AND ECONOMICS
538
383 ECOLOGICAL RISK AND ETHICS
541
384 ECOLOGICAL RISK STAKEHOLDER PREFERENCES AND PUBLIC OPINION
542
Monitoring the Results of Risk Management
543
The Future of Ecological Risk Assessment
547
Glossary
549
References
561
Index
625
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