Advanced Onsite Wastewater Systems Technologies (Google eBook)

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CRC Press, Jan 13, 2006 - Technology & Engineering - 288 pages
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Drawing on the authors' combined experience of more than 30 years, Advanced Onsite Wastewater Systems Technologies explores use of these technologies on a wide-scale basis to solve the problems associated with conventional septic tank and drain field systems. The authors discuss a regulatory and management infrastructure for ensuring long-term, reliable applications of onsite systems for wastewater management. The book and its supporting web-site (www.advancedonsitesystems.com) are an information catalog for advanced onsite wastewater technologies. This combination offers tools that will help onsite wastewater professionals communicate effectively with each other and their clients, thus minimizing the confusion and misunderstandings often related to the use of advanced onsite systems.

The authors provide an overview of advanced onsite systems technologies and compare them to conventional onsite systems and centralized wastewater systems. They present key concepts for decentralized wastewater solutions and information on advanced onsite wastewater treatment and effluent dispersal technologies currently available. The book delineates a management, regulatory, and planning framework for adopting the use of advanced onsite systems technologies as alternatives to conventional septic systems and centralized collection and treatment plants. It concludes with an exploration of the future of advanced onsite systems technologies and their uses.

A toolbox for service professionals, regulators, and community planners, the book highlights objective methods to assess the performance of technologies and examples of real-world applications. The authors detail a solution-driven and performance-based regulatory framework for the use of advanced onsite systems as a true alternative to centralized collection and treatment plants and offer guidance on how to plan for future growth with such systems. They answer the age-old question of "what to do when the land doesn't perc and sewer isn't coming?"
  

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Contents

Onsite wastewater management an overview
1
Septic systems versus advanced onsite systems versus centralized treatment
5
Managed advanced onsite treatment
6
Wastewater treatment levels and receiving environment
7
Septic systems cannot do it alone
9
Onsite treatment to levels greater than septic tanks
12
Use of soil for the majority of the treatment is not required
13
Responsible management and regulations
14
Nitrogen removal in SBRs
127
Typical applications of SBRs
128
ATU influent
130
Flow equalization
131
Operational issues
132
Biomass sludge wastage
133
Performance evaluation
134
References
135

Onsite technology is ready for the 21st century
17
Advanced onsite treatment systems
18
ATUs
19
Natural systems
20
Waterless systems
21
Disinfection systems
22
Remote monitoring system
24
Regulatory framework
25
Decentralized wastewater solutions
31
The term decentralized
32
Centralized versus decentralized solutions
33
Components of wastewater systems
34
The science of wastewater
35
Wastewater treatment basics Treatabilitiy
47
Temperature and FOG
59
Determining wastewater characteristics
60
A simple look at wastewater treatment
61
Concept of overall treatment levels
63
Soil and site issues
70
Media filters
73
Theory of attachedgrowth wastewater treatment systems
75
Types of natural and synthetic media used for treating wastewater
78
Sand and gravel filters
80
Manufactured media filters
81
Singlepass systems
82
Singlepass sand filter media
84
Loading rate and surface area
85
Singlepass peat filters
87
Recirculation ratio
89
Recirculating sand filters
93
Recirculating sand filter media
94
Filter drain
95
Distribution system design
97
Pumping systems for recirculating sand filters
99
Textile filters
100
Open cell foam filters
102
Controls
103
Level sensors
104
Determining timer settings
105
Pump selection
108
Other fixed film processes
109
Remote monitoring
110
Monitoring User Inputs
111
Soil dispersal of media filter effluent
112
Aerobic treatment units
115
Theory of biochemical wastewater treatment using aerobic treatment processes
116
Microbial metabolism
117
Biosynthesis
119
Environmental factors
120
Acid concentration
121
Typical ATU configurations
122
Suspendedgrowth bioreactors
123
Attachedgrowth bioreactors
124
Rotating biological contactor
125
Sequencing batch reactor systems or periodic processes
126
Effluent dispersal and recycling systems
137
Dispersal of advanced secondary effluent
138
then and now
142
subsurface dispersal of effluent
153
New concept for effluent dispersal system design
155
Experimental design example
156
Field Evaluation
158
Nitrogen reduction and the effluent dispersal system
160
Nitrogen model
161
Total maximum yearly load TMYL
163
Management framework for using advanced onsite wastewater systems technologies Introduction
167
Centralized versus onsite wastewater systems management
168
Responsible Management Entity RME
169
Who can be an RME?
171
UtilityRME system concept
172
Valueadded services
174
Redefining the roles
175
Helping the onsite industry
176
Longterm cost
177
Regulatory changes needed
178
Regulatory framework for using advanced onsite wastewater systems technologies
181
Regulatory framework for use of septic systems
183
Regulatory framework for use of advanced onsite systems
185
Performancebased framework
187
Building a foundation for performancebased regulations
190
Onsite system classifications
192
Performance monitoring requirements matrix
194
Approval process for advanced onsite technology
197
Performance verification protocol
198
Approved process
206
Soil and site issues
215
Soil loading rates and gross area
216
Site conditions
221
Building agreement
222
Approach
223
Planning with advanced onsite systems technologies
227
Integrating the use of advanced onsite systems in planning
228
Onsite versus centralized wastewater systems
229
Wastewater management at small scale
230
Wastewater and the receiving environment
232
Operation and management infrastructure
235
The future of advanced onsite systems technologies
243
Managed onsite systems
244
Why treat beyond the septic tank?
246
Fixing current problems and addressing future needs
247
Performance monitoring is now possible
249
Regulating use of onsite systems online
250
Limited online interaction with users
253
Applying for a permit online
254
Processing permit applications online
255
Issuing permits online
257
The future is bright
258
Index
259
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