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A Review of Thermoluminescence of Calcium Fluoride Calcium Sulphate and Calcium Carbonate
TL Mechanisms and Luminescent Characteristics in
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absorption bands activation energy Al3+ alkali halides anion annealing Appl atoms biochemicals Calcium Fluoride cation Ce3+ Chem concentration conduction band Cr3+ defects dipoles doped dosimetry Effects Electron Spin Resonance electron traps emission spectra Equation excited exciton exposure F centre Fe3+ frequency factor glow curve glow peaks heating high temperature hole traps impurities induced interstitial ionising ions irradiation isothermal decay lattice luminescence centres Magnesium Oxide measurements mechanism mineral CaF2 Mn2+ molecule neutron nm emission observed optical absorption order kinetics Oxide oxygen phosphors photon Phys polyethylene polymers produced PTTL quartz radiation damage radical rare earth rays RE3+ room temperature samples shown in Figure silica single crystals SiO2 Solids spectrum studies suggested Sunta techniques Thermally Stimulated Thermoluminescence Thermoluminescence Dosimetry TL emission TL glow TL intensity TL peak TL response transition trapped electrons tunnelling V-type centres vacancy Vk centres wavelength