Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium

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Duke University Press, Nov 21, 2002 - Social Science - 779 pages
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A landmark work on human migration around the globe, Cultures in Contact provides a history of the world told through the movements of its people. It is a broad, pioneering interpretation of the scope, patterns, and consequences of human migrations over the past ten centuries. In this magnum opus thirty years in the making, Dirk Hoerder reconceptualizes the history of migration and immigration, establishing that societal transformation cannot be understood without taking into account the impact of migrations and, indeed, that mobility is more characteristic of human behavior than is stasis.

Signaling a major paradigm shift, Cultures in Contact creates an English-language map of human movement that is not Atlantic Ocean-based. Hoerder describes the origins, causes, and extent of migrations around the globe and analyzes the cultural interactions they have triggered. He pays particular attention to the consequences of immigration within the receiving countries. His work sweeps from the eleventh century forward through the end of the twentieth, when migration patterns shifted to include transpacific migration, return migrations from former colonies, refugee migrations, and distinct regional labor migrations in the developing world. Hoerder demonstrates that as we enter the third millennium, regional and intercontinental migration patterns no longer resemble those of previous centuries. They have been transformed by new communications systems and other forces of globalization and transnationalism.

  

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This is a massive study of migration on a world scale. It covers the past thousand years, looking at different societies, different cultures, and different regions of the world. It considers voluntary migrations, slavery, and the impact of modern technologies such as steam and flight. Read full review

Contents

Worlds in Motion Cultures in Contact
1
12 Changing Paradigms and New Approaches
8
New Paradigms
10
Parameters of Mobility and Migration
14
13 Migrants as Actors and a Systems Approach
15
A Comprehensive Theoretical Perspective
16
The Mesolevel Approach to Migrant Decision Making
19
The JudeoChristianIslamic Mediterranean and Eurasian Worlds to the 1500s
23
131 Central Asian Peoples and Expansion into Siberia
307
132 Rural Colonization and Urban Migrations 17001861
309
The South Russian Plains the Urals and the Don Basin
311
Migration and the Growth of the Cities
312
Internal Migration in Industrializing Russia after Emancipation
315
134 The NineteenthCentury Siberian Frontier and Chinese Mongolia
318
135 Leaving the Orbit of the RussoSiberian System before 1914
322
The Emigration of RussianGermans and Mennonites
325

Antecedents Migration and Population Changes in the MediterraneanAsian Worlds
27
21 The AfroEurasian World
28
CrossCultural Encounters
30
23 PrePlague Migrations in Mediterranean and Transalpine Europe
38
Mediterranean Slavery
40
The Jewish Diaspora
42
Norman Societies
44
Crusaders and Prankish Settlement in Palestine
45
Muslims in alAndalus
48
Conquest and Resettlement on the Iberian Peninsula
51
Settlement in the Wendish Slavic Territories
53
24 Population Growth and Decline
55
Continuities Mobility and Migration from the Eleventh to the Sixteenth Century
59
31 Itinerancy at the Top of Dynastic Society
60
Itinerant Administrators
61
Warfaring Mercenaries
62
32 Migrations of Rural People and Servants
65
Migration and Relocation in Agriculture
68
Laborers and Servants
71
Wayfaring Men and Women
72
33 The Urban World of Commerce and Production
75
Merchant Routes and Trader Settlements
76
Marriage and Mobility among the Common People
79
Traveling Journeymen and OutofTown Maids
81
Masons Lodges and Miners Migrations
84
34 Pilgrims and Clerics Wanderings Stimulated by Devotion and Curiosity
86
The End of Intercivilizational Contact and the Economics of Religious Expulsions
92
Expulsion of Muslims
93
AntiJewish Pogroms and Expulsions
95
Christians against Christians
101
Ottoman Society Europe and the Beginnings of Colonial Contact
108
51 Ethnic Coexistence in Ottoman Society
109
Migration and the Peoples of the Empire
110
The Nonethnic Structures of a Multiethnic Empire
114
52 ManyCultured Renaissance Europe
117
Scholars and Artists TransEuropean Migrations
118
The Medieval and Early Modern Concept of Natio
120
Centralization versus Localism
122
53 From the Iberian Peninsula to SubSaharan Africa and across the Atlantic
125
African Slavery in Europe
126
Expansion to SubSaharan Africa and Asia
129
Early Contact with the Americas
131
Other Worlds and European Colonialism to the Eighteenth Century
135
Africa and the Slave Migration Systems
139
61 Migration and the Mixing of Peoples in SubSaharan Africa to the Sixteenth Century
140
62 Merchant Communities and Ethnogenesis
145
The Atlantic Slave Trade to the Nineteenth Century
149
Slavery in the Islamic and Asian Worlds
157
65 The Transformation of Slavery in Atlantic and Muslim Africa
160
TradePosts and Colonies in the World of the Indian Ocean
163
72 Parsees Jews Armenians and Other Traders
175
73 Portuguese TradePosts Spanish Manila Chinese Merchants
176
74 Slavery and Eurasian Society under Dutch Colonial Rule
181
75 Colonizing Cores Global Reach and the British Shift to Territorial Rule
183
Latin America Population Collapse and Resettlement
187
82 Iberian Migration and Settlement
191
83 Early Exploitation and Enslavement in the Caribbean
194
84 The First Transpacific Migration System
199
85 Ethnogenesis in Latin America
200
86 Internal Migrations in the Colonial Societies
205
Fur Empires and Colonies of Agricultural Settlement
211
91 Fur Empires in North America and Siberia
212
Native Peoples and Colonization
215
93 Forced Bound and Free Migrations
216
Settlement Migration in Stages
221
The African Cape and Australia
227
Forced Labor Migration in and to the Americas
234
10 1 The Forced Immobility and Mobility of Native Labor in Spanish America
235
102 The Atlantic Slave Trade and African Slavery in Spanish America
240
103 Enslaved and Free Africans in Portuguese Brazil
244
104 SlaveBased Societies in the Caribbean
248
105 African Slavery in AngloAmerica
253
Migration and Conversion Worldviews Material Culture Racial Hierarchies
257
111 EuroAtlantic Society Reconstructs Its Worldview
259
112 Material Culture in Everyday Life
264
113 New Peoples and Global Racism
270
Intercontinental Migration Systems to the Nineteenth Century
275
Europe Internal Migrations from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century
277
12 1 Continuities and New Patterns from Medieval to Modern Migrations
278
122 Rural Colonization and Enclosure
281
Colonization of Marginal Lands Nearby
283
Colonization of Distant Vacated Lands
284
The English Case
287
123 Regional Labor Migration Systems 16505 to 1830s
288
Labor Migration Systems 1650s to 1750s
289
Labor Migration Systems 1750s to 18305
293
124 Urbanization and Migrations
294
Artisans Merchants and Refugees
296
Immigrants in the Cities
301
125 Bourgeois Revolution Nation and Political Exile
303
The RussoSiberian Migration System
306
The Other America or Bolshevik Dictatorship
328
The Proletarian Mass Migrations in the Atlantic Economies
331
Family Economies in Crisis
332
The Division of Europe
333
Britain and the Germanies
336
Irish People Poles Jews and Italians
339
Village Economies in Worldwide Labor Markets
343
142 The Proletarian Mass Migration
344
Immigrant Societies Multiethnic Cities
346
North American Immigrant and AfroAmerican Migrations
351
Migration to Dependent Economies in Latin America
357
143 Transcultural Identities and Acculturation in the Age of NationStates
361
The Asian Contract Labor System 1830s to 1920s and Transpacific Migration
366
151 Traditional and New Patterns of Bondage
367
Internal and ColonizerImposed Causes of Migration in Three Societies
369
152 The Asian Contract Labor System
376
The Example of India under British Rule
380
154 Coolie and Passenger Migrations in Asia and to Africa
384
Free Migrants Indentured Workers and Imperial Auxiliaries in Southeast Asia
389
155 The Second Pacific Migration System
393
Contract Labor in the Caribbean and South America
394
Free and Bound Migrations to North America
398
156 Racism and Exclusion
400
Imperial Interest Groups and Subaltern Cultural Assertion
405
161 Colonial Spaces in Africa
407
162 From the African Diaspora to the Black Atlantic
413
163 The Sociology of White Imperial Migrations
419
Men of Commercial State and Cultural Gatekeeper Elites
420
Colonizer Masculinity
423
Auxiliaries and Elites
424
Gender Sex and Children
426
Daughters of the Empire or Imperial Mothers
427
Intimate Life and the Construction of the Others
429
Imperial Men Access to Women and Children of Mixed Origin
430
The Bodies of Laboring Men and Women
433
Subaltern Cultures and Racialized Diasporas
436
New Laborers and Racialized Diasporas
437
Proletarian Mass Migrations and Labor Militancies
439
TwentiethCentury Changes
443
Forced Labor and Refugees in the Northern Hemisphere to the 1950s
445
171 Power Struggles and the UnMixing of Peoples
446
The End of Ethnic Coexistence in Ottoman Turkey
447
Central and Eastern Europe
450
Empire and Autonomy
454
Political Emigration and Jewish Flight under Fascism
456
172 The New Labor Regimentation
461
Free Migration and Forced Labor in the USSR
463
From Forced Labor to Slave Labor in Wartime Germany
468
173 Population Transfers 193945 and After
472
Population Transfers and Prisoners of War up to 1945
473
Flight Expulsion and Migration in Postwar Europe
478
174 Imperialism Forced Labor and Relocation in Asia
480
Imperial Japan and CivilWar China to the 1930s
481
Forced Labor War Refugees
483
Between the Old and the New 1920s to 1950s
489
181 Peasant Settlement from Canada to Manchuria
490
Jewish Migrants Arab Refugees
496
183 Decolonization and Reverse Migrations
499
Racialized Labor Mobility in South Africa
504
New Migration Systems since the 1960s
508
191 Migrant Strategies and Root Causes
509
Refugees and Root Causes
513
The Feminization of Migration
517
Labor Migrants as Guest Workers and Foreigners
519
193 Multicultured and Multicolored Immigration to North America
523
The Caribbean Central America and South America
526
The Third Phase of Pacific Migrations
532
196 IntraAsian Migrations and Diasporas
536
197 Labor Migration to the Oil Economies of the Persian Gulf
546
198 IntraAfrican Labor and Refugee Migrations
550
Internal Migrations and Post1989 Changes
559
Intercultural Strategies and Closed Doors in the 1990s
564
201 From Multiethnic Polities to the UnMixing of Peoples into NationStates and Decolonization
565
Modern Migrations
571
203 Citizenship in a Postnational World versus Global Apartheid
574
204 Multiple Identities and Transcultural Everyday Lives
578
Notes
583
Selected Bibliography
717
Theory and Methodology Recent Approaches
719
Medieval and Early Modern Migrations
720
Migrations from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century
724
Africa including the Slave Trade and the Black Diaspora
725
Asia including Contract Labor West Asia the Eastern Mediterranean Hawaii and Australasia
727
Latin America and the Americas as a Whole
730
Anglo America
732
Europe including Russia
735
TwentiethCentury Migrations to the 1950s
739
Migrations and Minorities since the 1950s
741
Sources for Maps and Figures
747
Index
755
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Dirk Hoerder is Professor of History at the Universität Bremen in Germany. He has written and edited numerous books. He is coeditor of European Migrants: Global and Local Perspectives; The Settling of North America: The Atlas of the Great Migrations into North America from the Ice Age to the Present; People in Transit: German Migrations in Comparative Perspective, 1820–1930; Roots of the Transplanted; and Distant Magnets: Expectations and Realities in the Immigrant Experience, 1840–1930.

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