## Fundamental Forces Of Nature: The Story of Gauge Fields (Google eBook)"Gauge fields are the messengers carrying signals between elementary particles, enabling them to interact with each other. Originating at the level of quarks, these basic interactions percolate upwards, through nuclear and atomic physics, through chemical and solid state physics, to make our everyday world go round. This book tells the story of gauge fields, from Maxwell's 1860 theory of electromagnetism to the 1954 theory of Yang and Mills that underlies the Standard Model of elementary particle theory. In the course of the narration, the author introduces people and events in experimental and theoretical physics that contribute to ideas that have shaped our conception of the physical world"--Provided by publisher. |

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### Contents

1 | |

13 | |

3 The Vacuum is the Medium | 25 |

4 Let There be Light | 39 |

The Struggle for Quantum Theory | 47 |

6 Quantum Reality | 59 |

7 What is Charge? | 69 |

8 The Zen of Rotation | 77 |

15 The Particle Explosion | 147 |

16 Quarks | 157 |

17 All Interactions are Local | 169 |

18 Broken Symmetry | 181 |

19 Quark Confinement | 193 |

20 Hanging Threads of Silk | 201 |

21 The World in a Grain of Sand | 215 |

22 In the Space of All Possible Theories | 227 |

NonCommuting Charges | 85 |

10 Photons Real and Virtual | 95 |

11 Creation and Annihilation | 101 |

12 The Dynamical Vacuum | 113 |

13 Elementary Particles | 127 |

14 The Fall of Parity | 139 |

Beauty is Truth | 237 |

Appendix Nobel Prize in Physics | 239 |

261 | |

265 | |

### Common terms and phrases

amplitude antiparticle asymptotic freedom atoms awarded jointly baryon boson called Chap chiral classical color conserved corresponds cutoff decay density Dirac sea discovery Einstein electric field electromagnetic field electron elementary particles emit experimental fermions Feynman diagrams fixed point flux tube gauge field gauge invariance gauge photons gauge theory gauge transformation Gell-Mann global gauge invariance Goldstone gravitation hadrons Hamiltonian Heisenberg Higgs field illustrated in Fig intentionally left blank isotopic spin Lagrangian length scale lepton Lorentz magnetic field mass massless Maxwell’s equations meson momentum monopole motion neutrino neutron Newton’s nucleon observed octet order parameter parity physics pion positron potential energy prize was awarded prize was divided quantum mechanics quantum theory quarks renormalization representation RG trajectory rotation shown in Fig space space-time point spontaneous symmetry breaking Standard Model strong interaction structure superconductivity temperature tion vector potential velocity wave function weak interaction Weyl Yang–Mills zero