Microbial Inhabitants of Humans: Their Ecology and Role in Health and Disease

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Cambridge University Press, 2005 - Medical - 455 pages
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This advanced textbook provides a unique overview of the microbial communities (normal indigenous microbiota) inhabiting those regions of the human body that are exposed to the external environment, including the skin, eyes, oral cavity and the respiratory, urinary, reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts. In order to understand why particular organisms are able to colonise an anatomical region and why the resulting microbial community has a particular composition, an ecological approach is essential. Consequently, the key anatomical and physiological characteristics of each body site are described throughout the book. The crucial roles of the indigenous microbiota in protecting against exogenous pathogens, regulating the development of our immune system and mucosae, and providing nutrients are also discussed. The involvement of these organisms in infections of healthy and debilitated individuals are discussed throughout and methods of manipulating the composition of the indigenous microbiota for the benefit of human health are also described.
  

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good book...i needed information on oral flora for my dissertation

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Contents

An introduction to the humanmicrobe symbiosis
1
11 Overview of the distribution and nature of the indigenous microbiota of humans
2
111 Difficulties associated with determining microbial community composition
4
112 Structural aspects of residential microbial communities
6
113 Communication between members of microbial communities
11
12 Environmental determinants affecting the distribution and composition of the indigenous microbiota
12
121 Nutritional determinants
13
122 Physicochemical determinants
19
622 Acquired immune defence mechanisms of the female reproductive system
212
63 Environmental determinants at different regions of the reproductive system
213
632 Cervix
216
633 Vulva
217
634 Contribution of microbial residents of the reproductive system to nutrient availability
218
64 The indigenous microbiota of the female reproductive system
219
6413 Gardnerella vaginalis
221
6415 Streptococcus agalactiae Group B streptococcus
222

123 Mechanical determinants
23
124 Biological determinants
24
13 Host characteristics affecting the indigenous microbiota
26
132 Effect of host genotype
28
133 Effect of gender
29
142 Culture
31
143 Molecular approaches
33
144 Metabolic approaches
34
15 The epithelium site of hostmicrobe interactions
35
151 Structure of epithelia
36
152 The epithelium as an excluder of microbes
38
153 Mucus and mucins
39
154 Innate and acquired immune responses at the mucosal surface
43
16 Further Reading Books
47
The skin and its indigenous microbiota
51
22 Antimicrobial defence mechanisms of the skin
55
23 Environmental determinants at different regions of the skin
58
24 The indigenous microbiota of the skin
65
2412 Propionibacterium spp
68
2413 Staphylococcus spp
69
2414 Micrococcus spp
73
2416 Acinetobacter spp
75
2418 Dermabacter hominis
76
243 Community composition at different sites
78
2431 Scalp
82
2433 Toe interspace
83
2435 Axillae
84
2436 Sole of the foot
86
2437 Forearm and leg
87
2439 Outer ear
88
244 Interactions among members of the cutaneous microbiota
89
245 Dissemination of organisms from the skin
92
2461 Antibiotics
93
2462 Occlusion
95
2463 Skin cleansing
96
25 Diseases caused by members of the cutaneous microbiota
98
252 Intravascular catheterassociated infections
99
253 Infections associated with implanted prosthetic devices
100
254 Wound infections
101
256 Infective endocarditis
102
258 Erythrasma
103
2510 Pitted keratolysis
104
The eye and its indigenous microbiota
107
32 Antimicrobial defence mechanisms of the eye
108
33 Environmental determinants at different regions of the eye
113
34 The indigenous microbiota of the eye
116
343 Composition of the indigenous microbiota of the eye
118
344 Interactions among members of the ocular microbiota
119
345 Dissemination of organisms from the eye
120
3462 Contact lens wear
121
351 Conjunctivitis
122
354 Endophthalmitis
124
355 Orbital cellulitis
125
The respiratory system and its indigenous microbiota
128
412 Pharynx
130
413 Larynx
131
416 Alveolus
132
42 Antimicrobial defence mechanisms of the respiratory tract
133
421 Nasal cavity
136
422 Conducting portion of respiratory tract other than the nasal cavity
137
423 Respiratory portion
139
43 Environmental determinants at different regions of the respiratory tract
140
431 Composition of nasal fluid
141
432 Composition of airway surface liquid
142
433 Composition of alveolar lining fluid
143
4411 Neisseria spp
144
4412 Haemophilus spp
146
44131 Streptococcus pyogenes
147
44132 Streptococcus pneumoniae
149
44133 Viridans group streptococci
150
4416 Mollicutes
151
442 Acquisition of the respiratory microbiota
152
443 Community composition at different sites within the respiratory tract
157
4432 Nasal cavity
159
4433 Nasopharynx
160
4434 Oropharynx
164
4435 Lower respiratory tract
166
444 Interactions among members of the respiratory microbiota
167
445 Dissemination of organisms from the respiratory tract
168
446 Effects of antibiotics and other interventions on the respiratory microbiota
169
4462 Vaccination
170
4464 Radiation therapy
171
452 Pneumonia
172
453 Sinusitis
173
455 Epiglottitis
174
457 Diseases due to Strep pyogenes
175
46 Further Reading
178
The urinary system and its indigenous microbiota
182
513 Environmental determinants within the urethra
185
514 The indigenous microbiota of the female urethra
186
5142 Acquisition of the urethral microbiota
187
5143 Community composition within the female urethra
188
5144 Dispersal of organisms from the urethra
190
51452 Catheterisation
191
515 Diseases caused by members of the urethral microbiota of females
192
522 Antimicrobial defence mechanisms
194
523 Environmental determinants within the male urethra
195
524 The indigenous microbiota of the male urethra
196
5242 Acquisition of the microbiota of the male urethra
197
5244 Dispersal of organisms from the urethra
201
525 Diseases caused by members of the urethral microbiota of males
202
5253 Balanitis
203
The reproductive system and its indigenous microbiota
206
62 Antimicrobial defence mechanisms of the female reproductive system
209
642 Acquisition of the microbiota of the female reproductive system
223
64311 Microbiota of postmenarchalpremenopausal women
224
64312 Microbiota of premenarchal girls
231
64313 Microbiota of postmenopausal women
232
6432 Cervix
234
644 Dissemination of organisms from the female reproductive system
238
6452 Contraceptives
240
6454 Pregnancy
241
65l Infections of the vagina
242
6511 Bacterial vaginosis
243
6512 Vaginal candidiasis
244
6521 Pelvic inflammatory disease
246
6524 Preterm birth
247
6526 Bartholinitis
248
The gastrointestinal tract and its indigenous microbiota
251
72 Antimicrobial defence mechanisms of the gastrointestinal tract
258
722 Acquired immune defence system
260
73 Environmental determinants within different regions of the gastrointestinal tract
261
731 Oesophagus
262
733 Small intestine
263
734 Large intestine
264
74 The indigenous microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract
267
741 Main characteristics of key members of the intestinal microbiota
269
7412 Eubacterium spp
270
7413 Clostridium spp
271
7415 Enterococcus spp
272
7416 Helicobacter pylori
273
7417 Enterobacteriaceae
275
7418 Ruminococcus spp
277
742 Acquisition of the intestinal microbiota
278
743 Community composition at different sites
282
7432 Stomach
283
7433 Small intestine
284
7434 Large intestine
287
744 Microbial interactions in the gastrointestinal tract
294
7441 Positive interactions
295
7442 Negative interactions
296
745 Dissemination of organisms from the gastrointestinal tract
297
746 Effect of antibiotics and other interventions on the microbiotas of the gastrointestinal tract
298
7462 Artificial nutrition
300
752 Irritable bowel syndrome
301
753 Inflammatory bowel disease
302
755 Intraabdominal infections
303
7572 Urinary tract infections in males
310
758 Colorectal cancer
311
759 Systemic infections resulting from bacterial translocation
312
76 Further Reading
313
The oral cavity and its indigenous microbiota
318
82 Antimicrobial defence mechanisms of the oral cavity
323
83 Environmental determinants at the various sites within the oral cavity
325
832 Nutritional determinants
326
833 Physicochemical determinants
329
84 The indigenous microbiota of the oral cavity
332
841 Main characteristics of key members of the oral microbiota
333
8412 Actinomyces spp
334
8413 Veillonella spp
336
8415 Spirochaetes
337
8416 Facultatively anaerobic Gramnegative bacilli
338
842 Acquisition of the oral microbiota
339
843 Community composition at different sites
340
8431 Supragingival plaque
341
8432 Gingival crevice
353
8433 Tongue
355
8434 Other mucosal surfaces
358
844 Dissemination of organisms from the mouth
359
845 Effect of antibiotics and other interventions on the oral microbiota
360
8452 Mechanical oralhygiene measures
362
8454 Immunosuppressive chemotherapy
363
85 Diseases caused by members of the oral microbiota
364
852 Periodontal diseases
365
8521 Chronic gingivitis
366
8523 Periodontitis
367
853 Bacterial endocarditis and other extraoral infections
369
854 Denture stomatitis
370
856 Endodontic infections
371
86 Further Reading Books
372
Role of the indigenous microbiota in maintaining human health
375
912 Mechanisms involved in colonisation resistance
377
9122 Alteration of the physicochemical environment
378
9124 Utilisation of the available nutrients within a site
379
913l Role of microbial factors
380
9132 Role of host factors
382
93 Host nutrition
387
931 Shortchain fatty acids
388
932 Vitamins
390
94 Detoxification
391
95 Further Reading
392
Manipulation of the indigenous microbiota
395
1011 Probiotics and gastrointestinal health
397
1013 Prevention of dental caries using probiotics
401
103 Inhibition of microbial adhesion
403
1031 Inhibition of adhesion using antibodies
404
1032 Inhibition of adhesion using adhesins or adhesin analogues
405
1034 Prevention of medicaldeviceassociated infections
406
104 Replacement therapy
407
1041 Prevention of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus
408
1042 Prevention of pharyngeal colonisation and infection
409
1043 Prevention of dental caries
410
1044 Prevention of otitis media
411
1045 Prevention of urinary tract infections
412
1046 Treatment of infections due to Clostridium difficile
414
106 Further Reading
416
Index
421
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About the author (2005)

Michael Wilson is Professor of Microbiology in the Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University College London, and Head of the Department of Microbiology at the Eastman Dental Institute, University College London. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Biofilms and has co-authored or edited numerous books, including Bacterial Disease Mechanisms (2002), Bacterial Adhesion to Host Tissues (2002) and Medical Implications of Biofilms (2003).

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