Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects (Google eBook)

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 25, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 715 pages
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The world faces serious difficulties in obtaining the energy that will be needed in coming decades for a growing population, especially given the problem of climate change caused by fossil fuel use. This book presents a view of nuclear energy as an important carbon-free energy option. It discusses the nuclear fuel cycle, the types of reactors used today and proposed for the future, nuclear waste disposal, reactor accidents and reactor safety, nuclear weapon proliferation, and the cost of electric power. To provide background for these discussions, the book begins with chapters on the history of the development and use of nuclear energy, the health effects of ionizing radiation, and the basic physics principles of reactor operation. The text has been rewritten and substantially expanded for this edition, to reflect changes that have taken place in the eight years since the publication of the first edition and to provide greater coverage of key topics. These include the Yucca Mountain repository plans, designs for next-generation reactors, weapons proliferation and terrorism threats, the potential of alternatives to nuclear energy, and controversies about low-level radiation. Acclaim for the first edition: '…The book provides a superb background for scientists and those in technical fields. It provides probably all the information that many people, including government policy makers, will ever need...[a] well-written and balanced book. This book is recommended for anyone who wants a broad technical background on nuclear energy.' -American Journal of Physics
  

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Review: Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects

User Review  - Ondrej Chvala - Goodreads

I love this book - it covers all the aspects of nuclear energy in twenty short and to the point chapters, with plenty references for each chapter. The book explains everything from zero up, requiring ... Read full review

Contents

1241 The TSPA Approach
312
1242 The DOE Nominal Scenario
316
1243 Disruptive Scenarios
320
1251 Evaluations of Yucca Mountain Analyses
326
1252 Continuing Technical Issues
329
1253 Further Institutional Measures
330
1254 Overview of Yucca Mountain Prospects
331
References
332

134 The Status of Nuclear Energy
18
References
22
Nuclear Power Development 21 Present Status of Nuclear Power
25
221 Speculations Before the Discovery of Fission
27
222 Fission and the First Reactors
29
231 Immediate Postwar Developments
31
232 History of US Reactor Orders and Construction
33
24 Trends in US Reactor Utilization 241 Permanent Reactor Closures
36
242 Capacity Factors
39
244 Renewal of Reactor Operating Licenses
41
251 Early History of Nuclear Programs
42
252 Nuclear Power Since 1973
43
253 Planned Construction of New Reactors
45
261 France
47
262 Japan
48
263 Other Countries
49
27 Failures of Prediction
53
References
54
Radioactivity and Radiation Exposures 31 Brief History
57
321 Radiation Exposure and Radiation Dose
58
322 Basic Units of Exposure and Dose
59
323 Effective Dose Equivalent or Effective Dose
62
331 Halflife and Mean Life
63
332 Units of Radioactivity
64
333 Specific Activity
65
341 Origin of Natural Radioactivity
66
342 Radioactive Series in Nature
68
343 Concentrations of Radionuclides in the Environment
70
351 Natural Sources of Radiation
73
352 Radiation Doses from Medical Procedures
77
353 Other Sources of Radiation
78
354 Summary
81
References
82
Effects of Radiation Exposures 41 The Study of Radiation Effects 411 Agencies and Groups Carrying out Radiation Studies
85
412 Types of Studies
86
Deterministic and Stochastic 42 Effects of High Radiation Doses 421 Deterministic Effects
87
Observational Evidence for Cancer at High Doses
88
431 Importance of Low Doses
91
432 Observational Evidence for Cancer at Low Dose Rates
92
433 The Shape of the DoseResponse Curve
96
434 Conclusions of Advisory Bodies on LowDose Effects
100
435 Genetic Effects
104
441 Standards for the General Public
105
442 Standards for Occupational Exposures
107
443 Alternative Risk Criteria
108
444 Collective Doses and de Minimis Levels
110
451 Radium226
111
452 Radon222
112
453 Neptunium237
115
References
118
Neutron Reactions 51 Overview of Nuclear Reactions 511 Neutron Reactions of Importance in Reactors
123
512 Reaction Cross Sections
125
52 Cross Sections in the Resonance Region 521 Observed Cross Sections
128
522 Shape of the Resonance Peak
130
523 Level Widths and Doppler Broadening
131
53 Cross Sections in the Continuum Region
132
541 LowEnergy Region and the 1v Law 542 Thermal Neutrons
134
References
136
Nuclear Fission 61 Discovery of Fission
139
621 Coulomb and Nuclear Forces 622 Separation Energies and Fissionability
141
623 Fission Cross Sections with Fast and Thermal Neutrons
143
631 Mass Distribution of Fission Fragments
144
632 Neutron Emission
146
633 Decay of Fission Fragments
148
641 Energy of Fission Fragments
149
642 Total Energy Budget
150
References
151
Chain Reactions and Nuclear Reactors 71 Criticality and the Multiplication Factor 711 General Considerations
153
712 Formalism for Describing the Multiplication Factor
155
713 Numerical Values of Thermal Reactor Parameters
157
721 Role of Moderators
158
722 Moderating Ratio
160
731 Reactivity 732 Buildup of Reaction Rate
162
74 Conversion Ratio and Production of Plutonium in Thermal Reactors
164
751 Reactor Poisons 752 Controls
166
753 Xenon Poisoning
167
References
168
Types of Nuclear Reactors 81 Survey of Reactor Types 811 Uses of Reactors
171
812 Classifications of Reactors
172
813 Components of Conventional Reactors
173
814 World Inventory of Reactor Types
176
821 PWRs and BWRs 822 Components of a Light Water Reactor
181
823 PWR Reactor Cores
185
831 Characterization of Reactors 832 Achievement of High Conversion Ratios in Thermal Reactors
186
833 Fast Breeder Reactors
188
84 The Natural Reactor at Oklo
191
References
192
Nuclear Fuel Cycle 91 Characteristics of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle 911 Types of Fuel Cycle
193
92 Front End of the Fuel Cycle 921 Uranium Mining and Milling
195
922 Enrichment of Uranium
198
923 Fuel Fabrication
204
93 Fuel Utilization 931 Burnup as a Measure of Fuel Utilization
205
932 Uranium Consumption and Plutonium Production
208
933 Energy from Consumption of Fuel
210
934 Uranium Ore Requirement
212
941 Handling of Spent Fuel
213
942 Reprocessing
214
943 Alternative Reprocessing and Fuel Cycle Candidates
218
944 Waste Disposal
220
951 Price of Uranium
221
952 Estimates of Uranium Resources
222
953 Uranium from Seawater
225
954 Impact of Fuel Cycle Changes and Breeder Reactors
226
References
227
Nuclear Waste Disposal Amounts of Waste 101 Categories of Nuclear Waste 1011 The Nature of the Problem
231
1012 Military and Civilian Wastes
232
1013 High and LowLevel Wastes
233
1014 Inventories of US Nuclear Wastes
234
1015 Measures of Waste Magnitudes
235
1021 Mass and Volume per GWyr
237
1022 Radioactivity in Waste Products
238
1023 Heat Production
242
1031 Approaches to Examining Hazards
244
1032 Comparisons Based on Water Dilution Volume
245
1033 Comparisons of Activity in Spent Fuel and in Earths Crust
249
References
251
Storage and Disposal of Nuclear Wastes 111 Stages in Waste Handling 1111 Overview of Possible Stages
253
1112 Storage of Spent Fuel at Reactor Sites
254
1113 Interim Storage of Waste or Spent Fuel at Centralized Facilities
257
1114 Nuclear Waste Transportation
260
1121 Multiple Barriers in Geologic Disposal
266
1122 Alternative Host Rocks for a Geologic Repository
267
1123 Motion of Water and Radionuclides Through Surrounding Medium
269
1124 Thermal Loading of the Repository
272
1125 The Waste Package
273
1131 Variants of Geologic Disposal
277
1132 Subseabed Disposal
278
1133 Partitioning and Transmutation of Radionuclides
281
114 Worldwide Status of Nuclear Waste Disposal Plans
285
References
287
US Waste Disposal Plans and the Yucca Mountain Repository 121 Formulation of US Waste Disposal Policies 1211 Brief History of Planning Efforts
291
1212 Organizations Involved in Waste Management Policy
293
1213 Congressional Role in the SiteSelection Process
296
1221 Schedule for the Yucca Mountain Project
297
1222 Physical Features of the Site
299
1223 The Waste Inventory
301
1224 The Nuclear Waste Fund
302
1231 The Protection Requirement
303
1232 DefenseinDepth
304
1233 Engineered Barriers
305
1234 Natural Barriers
308
1235 The Thermal Loading of the Repository
311
Policy Issues in Nuclear Waste Disposal 131 The Importance of the Nuclear Waste Disposal Issue 1311 The Centrality of the Issue
337
1312 General Considerations in Nuclear Waste Disposal
338
1321 The Original Formulation of 40CFR191
339
1322 The 14CProblem
340
1324 The NAS Recommendations
342
40CFR197
344
1331 The General Recognition of the Problem
347
1332 Picture of Future Generations
349
1333 Discounting with Time
351
1341 The DecisionMaking Process
353
1342 Technological Optimism and Its Possible Traps
357
1343 A Surrogate Issue?
358
1351 A StepbyStep Approach
359
1352 Framework for Considering Intergenerational Responsibilities
362
1353 Putting the Risks into Perspective
363
References
367
Nuclear Reactor Safety 141 General Considerations in Reactor Safety 1411 Assessments of Commercial Reactor Safety
371
1412 The Nature of Reactor Risks
372
1413 Means of Achieving Reactor Safety
374
1414 Measures of Harm and Risk in Reactor Accidents
377
1421 Criticality Accidents and Feedback Mechanisms
379
1422 Heat Removal and LossofCoolant Accidents
381
1431 Deterministic Safety Assessment
383
1432 Probabilistic Risk Assessment
384
1433 Results of the Reactor Safety Study
389
1441 Institutional Responses
392
NUREG1150
393
1443 Predictions of Core Damage and Precursor Analyses
399
1444 Other Indications of Performance
401
1451 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Position
403
1453 Standards for Future Reactors How Safe Is Safe Enough?
407
References
408
Nuclear Reactor Accidents 151 Historical Overview of Reactor Accidents
411
1521 The Early History of the TMI Accident
414
1522 Evolution of the TMI Accident
417
1523 Effects of the TMI Accident
418
1531 The Chernobyl Reactors
421
1532 History of the Chernobyl Accident
422
1533 Release of Radioactivity from Chernobyl
425
1534 Observations of Health Effects of Chernobyl Accident
426
1535 Radiation Exposures at Chernobyl and Vicinity
428
1536 Worldwide Radiation Exposures from Chernobyl
432
1537 General Effects of the Chernobyl Accident
434
References
436
Future Nuclear Reactors 161 General Considerations for Future Reactors 1611 The End of the First Era of Nuclear Power
439
1612 Important Attributes of Future Reactors
440
1613 Reactor Size
441
1614 US Licensing Procedures
443
1621 Classification of Reactors by Generation
444
1622 US DOE NearTerm Deployment Roadmap
445
1623 Illustrative Compilations of Reactor Designs
448
1631 Evolutionary Reactors Licensed by the US NRC
449
1632 Innovative Light Water Reactors
452
164 HighTemperature GasCooled Reactors 1641 HTGR Options
459
1642 Historical Background of GraphiteModerated Reactors
460
1643 General Features of Present HTGR Designs
462
1644 HTGR Configurations
464
1651 Recent United States Programs
467
1652 Safety Features of LMRs
468
1661 Overview of the Program
470
1662 Systems Emphasized in the United States
472
167 Radical Nuclear Alternatives to Present Reactors 1671 Fusion
475
1672 AcceleratorDriven Fission
476
References
477
Nuclear Bombs Nuclear Energy and Terrorism 171 Concerns About Links Between Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons
481
1721 Basic Characteristics of Fission Bombs
482
1722 Effects of Nuclear Bombs
485
1723 Critical Mass for Nuclear Weapons
486
1724 Buildup of a Chain Reaction
489
173 Uranium and Nuclear Weapons
490
1741 Explosive Properties of Plutonium
492
1742 ReactorGrade Plutonium as a Weapons Material
496
1743 Production of Plutonium in Reactors
499
1751 The Range of Terrorist Threats
501
1752 The Nature of the Nuclear Terrorist Threat
503
1753 Nuclear Bombs
504
1754 Radiological Dispersion Devices Dirty Bombs
510
1755 Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants
512
References
514
Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 181 Nuclear Proliferation 1811 International Treaties
517
1812 Forms of Proliferation
522
1813 Means for Obtaining Fissile Material
524
1814 Nuclear Weapons Inventories
525
1821 Official NuclearWeapon States
526
1822 Other Countries with Announced Weapons Programs
530
1823 Countries Believed to Have or Be Seeking Nuclear Weapons
533
1824 Countries That Have Abandoned Nuclear Weapons Programs
539
183 Nuclear Power and the Weapons Threat 1831 Potential Role of Nuclear Power in Weapons Proliferation
542
1832 Weapons Dangers for Different Categories of Countries
545
1833 Reducing Proliferation Dangers from Nuclear Power
548
1834 Nuclear Power and Moderation of Weapons Dangers
550
1835 Policy Options for the United States
554
References
555
Costs of Electricity 191 Generation Costs and External Costs
559
1921 Who Provides Electricity?
561
1922 The Role of Government in Electricity Generation Decisions
563
1931 Calculation of Costs
564
1932 Recent Trends in Electricity Prices
566
1933 Costs of Nuclear and Fossil Fuel Electricity Sources
567
1941 The Role of Cost Differences
571
1942 Leveling or Tilting the Playing Field
572
1943 Mechanisms for Encouraging or Discouraging Electricity Choices
574
1944 Reactor Longevity
575
References
576
The Prospects for Nuclear Energy 201 The Nuclear Debate 2011 Nature of the Debate
579
2013 External Factors Impacting Nuclear Energy
581
2021 Need for Additional Generating Capacity
582
2022 Fossil Fuels with Low CO2 Emissions
583
2023 Renewable Sources
585
203 Possible Expansion of Nuclear Power 2031 Projection of Demand
589
2032 Production of Hydrogen
592
2033 Desalination of Seawater
595
2034 Possible Difficulties in Nuclear Expansion
597
2041 World Picture 2042 United States
600
2043 Asia
603
2052 Proliferation Risks and Nuclear Power
606
2053 Nuclear Power and a Desirable Society Feelings About Material Development
607
2054 The Road to Decisions
610
2055 Predictions and their Uncertainty
613
References
615
Elementary Aspects of Nuclear Physics A1 Simple Atomic Model A11 Atoms and Their Constituents
619
A13 Isotopes and Isobars
620
A21 Electric Charge A22 Mass
621
A23 Avogadros Number and the Mole
622
A25 MassEnergy Equivalence
623
A31 Atomic Mass and Atomic Mass Number A32 Isotopes and Elements
624
A33 Binding Energy B
625
A4 Energy States and Photons
626
A5 Nuclear Systematics
628
A61 Particles Emitted in Radioactive Decay
630
A62 AlphaParticle Emission
631
A63 BetaParticle Emission
633
A64 GammaRay Emission
635
A71 Exponential Decay A72 Mean Life and HalfLife
636
A73 Nuclei Remaining after a Given Time Interval
637
References
639
General Tables
641
Acronyms and Abbreviations
647
Glossary
655
Index
675
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