Theory of Heat

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Courier Dover Publications, 2001 - Science - 364 pages
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Though James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) is best remembered for his epochal achievements in electricity and magnetism, he was wide-ranging in his scientific investigations, and he came to brilliant conclusions in virtually all of them. As James R. Newman put it, Maxwell "combined a profound physical intuition, an exquisite feeling for the relationship of objects, with a formidable mathematical capacity to establish orderly connections among diverse phenomena. This blending of the concrete and the abstract was the chief characteristic of almost all his researches."
Maxwell's work on heat and statistical physics has long been recognized as vitally important, but "Theory of Heat, " his own masterful presentation of his ideas, remained out of print for years before being brought back in this new edition. In this unjustly neglected classic, Maxwell sets forth the fundamentals of thermodynamics clearly and simply enough to be understood by a beginning student, yet with enough subtlety and depth of thought to appeal also to more advanced readers. He goes on to elucidate the fundamental ideas of kinetic theory, and -- through the mental experiment of "Maxwell's demon" -- points out how the Second Law of Thermodynamics relies on statistics.
A new Introduction and notes by Peter Pesic put Maxwell's work into context and show how it relates to the quantum ideas that emerged a few years later. Theory of Heat will serve beginners as a sound introduction to thermal physics; advanced students of physics and the history of science will find Maxwell's ideas stimulating, and will be delighted to discover this inexpensive reprint of a long-unavailable classic.

  

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
THE MERCURIAL THERMOMETER
5
Introduction
6
Introduction
10
ON THE DIFFERENT PHYSICAL STATES OF BODIES
16
ON THERMOMETRY OR THE THEORY OF TEMPERATURE
32
Thermometry
34
Scale of the Thermometer
37
ON THE INTRINSIC ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES
185
AvAILABLE ENERGY
187
Energy Entropy and Dissipaticn
192
MECHANICAL AND THERMAL ANALOGIES
193
Machanical
195
ON FREE EXPANSION
209
Free Expansion
211
Dynamical Equivalent of Heat
213

Thermometry
40
ON THE AIR THERMOMETER
46
Absolute Temperatures
51
CALORIMETRY
54
Calorimetry
56
ICE CALORIMETERS
58
Bunseris Calorimeter
61
METHOD OF MIXTURE
63
DEFINITION OF THE CAPACITY OF A BODY
65
Method of Double Experiments
69
ELEMENTARY DYNAMICAL PRINCIPLES
74
STANDARD OF LENGTH
76
Measurement of Force
83
ON WORK AND ENERGY
87
GENERAL STATEMENT OF THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
92
ON THE MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE AND OTHER INTERNAL FORCES AND OF THE EFFECTS WHICH THEY PRODUCE
94
Pressures and Tensions
95
WORK DONE BY A PISTON ON A FLUID
101
ON INDICATOR DIAGRAMS
102
Elasticity
107
ON LINES OF EQUAL TEMPERATURE OR ISOTHERilAL LINES ON THE INDICATOR DIAGRAM
108
CASES The Gaseous State
110
INDICATOR DIAGRAM OF A SUBSTANCE PART OF WHICH IS LIQUID AND PART VAPOUR
113
Steam Line and Water Line tt7
117
Isothermal Curves
118
ON THE PROPERTIES OF A SUBSTANCE WHEN HEAT IS PREvENTED FROM ENTERING OR LEAVING IT
127
Adiabatic Curves
130
Adiabatic Curves
134
HEAT ENGINES
138
First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics t53
153
THOMSONS ABSOLUTE SCALE OF TEMPERATURE
155
EFFICIENCY OF A HEAT ENGINE
158
Heat Engines
160
Thermodynamics
162
Thermodynamics
164
ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SUBSTANCE
165
SPECIFIC HEAT
169
Relations of Specific Heat and Elasticity
171
LATENT HEAT
173
Latent Heat
176
THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS TO GASES
178
Application of Thermodynamics to Gases
180
Ratio of Elasticities
183
ON THE DETERMINATION OF HEIGHTS BY THE BAROMETER
217
Measurement of Heights by the Barometer
218
Measurement of Heights by the Barometer
220
Height of a Mountain
221
ON THE PROPAGATION OF WAVES
223
Waves
228
ON RADIATION
230
Radiation
234
Polarization
237
ON PREVOSTS THEORY OF EXCHANGES
240
Radiation
246
EFFECT OF RADIATION ON THERMOMETERS
248
ON CONVECTIONCURRENTS
250
Convection
252
ON THE DIFFUSION OF HEAT BY CONDUCTION
253
ON THE DIMENSIONS OF k THE SPECIFIC THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
255
Sketch of Fouriers Theory
259
Harmonic Distribution of Temperature
263
Steady and Periodic Plow of Heat
265
OF BODIES
268
APPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY
272
ON THE DIFFUSION OF FLUIDS
273
Law of Diffusion
275
Diffusion of Matter
278
CAPILLARITY
279
Capillarity
280
Capillarity
286
in Relation to Evaporation and Condensation
287
Capillarity
292
ON ELASTICITY AND VISCOSITY On Stresses and Strains
294
Viscous Solids
297
ON THE MOLECULAR THEORY OF THE CONSTITUTION OF BODIES
301
Heat is Motion
303
ON THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
307
Laws of Boyle and GayLussac
315
Laws of Dulong and Petit
319
Diffusion Conduction and Viscosity
321
MOLECULAR THEORY OF EVAPORATION AND CONDENSATION
323
MOLECULAR THEORY OF ELECTROLYSIS
325
MOLECULAR THEORY OF RADIATION
326
Radiation
327
NATURE AND ORIGIN OF MOLECULES
330
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About the author (2001)

James Clerk Maxwell: In His Own Words — And Others
Dover reprinted Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in 1954, surely one of the first classics of scientific literature over a thousand pages in length to be given new life and accessibility to students and researchers as a result of the paperback revolution of the 1950s. Matter and Motion followed in 1991 and Theory of Heat in 2001.

Some towering figures in science have to speak for themselves. Such is James Clerk Maxwell (1813–1879), the Scottish physicist and mathematician who formulated the basic equations of classical electromagnetic theory.

In the Author's Own Words:
"We may find illustrations of the highest doctrines of science in games and gymnastics, in traveling by land and by water, in storms of the air and of the sea, and wherever there is matter in motion."

"The 2nd law of thermodynamics has the same degree of truth as the statement that if you throw a tumblerful of water into the sea, you cannot get the same tumblerful of water out again." — James Clerk Maxwell

Critical Acclaim for James Clerk Maxwell:
"From a long view of the history of mankind — seen from, say, ten thousand years from now — there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics. The American Civil War will pale into provincial insignificance in comparison with this important scientific event of the same decade." — Richard P. Feynman

"Maxwell's equations have had a greater impact on human history than any ten presidents." — Carl Sagan

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