Observation and Experiment in the Natural and Social Sciences

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Maria Carla Galavotti
Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 30, 2003 - Philosophy - 345 pages
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According to a long tradition in philosophy of science, a clear cut distinction can be traced between a context of discovery and a context of justification. This tradition dates back to the birth of the discipline in connection with the Circles of Vienna and Berlin, in the twenties and thirties of last century. Convicted that only the context of justification is pertinent to philosophy of science, logical empiricists identified its goal with the “rational reconstruction” of scientific knowledge, taken as the clarification of the logical structure of science, through an analysis of its language and methods. Stressing justification as the proper field of application of philosophy of science, logical empiricists intended to leave discovery out of its remit. The context of discovery was then discarded from philosophy of science and left to sociology, psychology and history. The distinction between context of discovery and context of justification goes hand in hand with the tenet that the theoretical side of science can – and should – be kept separate from its observational and experimental components. Further, the final, abstract formulation of theories should be analysed apart from the process behind it, resulting from a tangle of context-dependent factors. This conviction is reflected by the distinction between theoretical and observational sentences underpinning the Hempelian view of theories as nets, whose knots represent theoretical terms, floating on the plane of observation, to which it is anchored by rules of interpretation.
  

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Contents

PAOLO LEGRENZI Naďve Probability
43
LŔSZLÓ SZABÓ From Theory to Experiments and Back Again
56
REINHARD SELTEN Emergence and Future of Experimental
63
WENCESLAO GONZALEZ Rationality in Experimental
71
ROBERTO SCAZZIERI Experiments Heuristics and Social
85
GERD GIGERENZER Where Do New Ideas Come From?
99
DAVID PAPINEAU Comments on Gerd Gigerenzer 141
140
JEANNE PEIJNENBURG On the Concept of Discovery
153
DONALD GILLIES Some Comments on Styles
199
DAVID ATKINSON Experiments and Thought Experiments
209
DANIEL ANDLER The Advantage of Theft over Honest Toil
226
MICHAEL STÖLTZNER The Dynamics of Thought Experiments
243
GIORA HON An Attempt at a Philosophy of Experiment
259
RAFFAELLA CAMPANER An Attempt at a Philosophy
285
COLIN HOWSON Bayesian Evidence
301
IGOR DOUVEN On Bayesian Logic Comments on Colin Howson
321

URSULA KLEIN Styles of Experimentation
159
ARISTIDES BALTAS On French Concepts and Objects
186

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