The Endangered Species Act: Law, Policy, and Perspectives

Front Cover
Donald C. Baur
American Bar Association, 2002 - Endangered species - 582 pages
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This text describes ESA legal controversies and emerging case law, proposed agency reforms and the competing perspectives of interest groups.
  

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Contents

A Premature Evaluation of American Endangered Species Law
1
The Endangered Species Act of 1973
2
The ESA and Land Use
3
The Rule of Law and the Northern Spotted Owl
4
The ESA and Flexibility
6
Success or Failure?
8
The ESA and the Future
9
Historical Background to the Endangered Species Act
11
Harass Should Not Cover Wildlife Injuries Occurring Through Habitat
241
The Take Analogies for Listed Plants
242
Conclusion
244
Judicial Interpretation of Section 9 of the Endangered Species Act Before and After Sweet Home More of the Same
253
Sweet HomeSupreme Courts Decision
264
Discussion
276
Conclusion
279
An Overview of Section 10
285

Section 4 of the ESA The Keystone of Species Protection Law
19
The Basic Species Listing Definitions and Criteria
20
The Basic Implementing Procedures
22
The Relevant Case Law
28
The Agencies Track Record
36
Administrative Reform
38
Conclusion
41
Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat
47
Definition of Critical Habitat
48
The Designation of Critical Habitat
52
The Regulatory Significance of Critical Habitat
60
Critical Habitat Designation and the National Environmental Policy Act
64
Recovery Planning
71
The Statutory Provisions and Their Legislative History
72
The Meaning of Recovery
73
Recovery Plan Development
74
Recovery Plan Implementation
79
The Experience with Recovery Planning and Prospects for Reform
81
Protecting Species Through Interagency Cooperation
87
The Duty to Conserve
88
Duty to Avoid Jeopardy or Adverse Modification
89
Judicial Review
107
Reinitiation of ESA Section 7 Consultations over Existing Projects
115
Federal Agency Action Trigger
116
Reinitiation Criteria
118
The Scope of Consultation Once Reinitiated
121
Conclusion
126
The Exemption Process and the God Squad
131
The Players and the Process
133
The Decisions
143
Conclusion
151
Choosing Harmony Indian Rights and the Endangered Species Act
155
Sovereignty the Federal Trust Responsibility and Reserved Rights
156
Does the ESA Apply to Tribal Activities?
160
The Secretarial Order on ESA and Tribal Rights
163
The Cost of Continued Existence Assessing the Impacts of Section 7 on Federal Agencies Private Actors and Endangered Species
179
The Long Shadow of Section 7
180
A Tough but Flexible Law
184
Conclusion
187
Take Prohibitions and Section 9
191
Cases Discussing Take
194
Habitat Modification as Harmthe Great Debate
196
Trends?
201
Similarity of Appearance
203
Alaska
204
When Do Land Use Activities Take Listed Wildlife Under ESA Section 9 and the Harm Regulation?
207
Background on the ESA Take of Listed Wildlife
209
Background on Enforcement Under ESA Section 11
210
The Sweet Home Case
211
The Three Elements for Harm
214
Adverse Modification of Habitat Suitable for a Listed Wildlife Species Is Not Sufficient to Prove Harm
217
Actual Injury to Listed Wildlife and Impairing Essential Behavorial Patterns Are Separate Elements for Harm
220
Harm Applies to Individuals
225
An Injury to Recovery or the Population Growth Rate Is Not Harm
227
Harm Requires Proof of Actual Injury to a Reasonable Certaintythe Potential for or Probabilistic Risk of Injury to Listed Wildlife Is Not Harm
229
The Ninth Circuits ESA Jurisprudence
234
Harm Requires a Significant Habitat Modification
236
The Proximate Causation and Foreseeability Elements of Harm
237
Strahan and Loggerhead TurtleCreating Expansive Governmental Liability for Takes Committed by Persons Subject to Governmental Regulation
239
ESA Compliance Options Section 10 and Other Tools
297
General Overview of Habitat Planning
300
Other Compliance Tools and Incentives
311
Conclusion
315
HCPsImportant Tools for Conserving Habitat and Species
319
Habitat Conservation Planning in the NoSurprises Era
321
Improving the HCP Process
328
Conclusion
336
Tipping the Balance
339
The Quiet Revolution
340
Regulatory Certainty
346
Experimenting with Experimental Populations
359
Background
360
The Experimental Population Scheme
361
DOI Regulations Implementing the Experimental Population Amendment
363
The FWSs Process for Issuing Special Experimental Population Rules
366
Conclusion
368
Experimental Populations Reintroducing the Missing Parts
379
Legislative History
380
Statutory Provisions
382
Releases of Experimental Populations
385
Conclusions
395
Epilogue
396
Plants
401
Other Statutory Protection
409
Conclusion
411
Citizen Suits
415
The Unique Nature of the ESA
416
Citizen Suits
417
Federal Jurisdiction Practice and Procedure
419
Federal Administrative Law
426
Conclusion
434
The ESA and Takings of Private Property
441
Threshold Questions
442
Reasonable InvestmentBacked Expectations
446
Personal Property
448
Procedural Issues
450
Physical Occupation Claims
451
Just Compensation and the Endangered Species Act
459
The Just Compensation Clause
460
Ripeness Mitigatory Exactions and Personal Property
465
Just Compensation Principles in Action
470
Conclusion
478
International Aspects of the Endangered Species Act
485
The State of State Endangered Species Acts
503
History
504
The Role of State ESAs
515
The Endangered Species Act Anatomy of an Environmental Scapegoat
519
Ecosystem Protection and the Big Picture
523
Look Before You Leap
527
Life Is About Priorities
529
ESA Reform Facing Hard Truths
533
Statutory Overview
535
The Need for Legislative and Administrative Reform
536
The Noah Principle
551
Conclusion
552
Table of Cases
555
Index
569
Copyright

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