European Revolutions and the American Literary Renaissance
Political issues and events have always acted as a catalyst on thought and art. In this study, Larry J. Reynolds argues that the European revolutions of 1848-49 quickened the American literary imagination and shaped the characters, plots, and themes of the American renaissance. He traces the impact of the revolutions on Emerson, Fuller, Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman, and Thoreau, showing that the upheavals abroad both inspired and disturbed. Unlike many studies that have emphasized the national features and revolutionary spirit of our classic American literature, Reynolds's study, which places this literature in an international context, reveals its conservative, counterrevolutionary side. Emerson witnessed the revolutionary turmoil in England and France during the spring of 1848. Reynolds contends that Emerson disdained the revolutions but was unable to resist their challenge - they inspired him to articulate with renewed vigor the idealism at the center of his spiritual life. Reynolds describes next the 'Bloody June Days' in Paris and examines their effect on American writings, particularly Uncle Tom's Cabin. In his discussion of Margaret Fuller, Reynolds compares her response to the socialist revolution with Emerson's and demonstrates that her Tribune dispatches from Italy, written during the Roman Revolution, constitute a powerful historical narrative of unrecognized artistry and value. Turning to the writings of Hawthorne and Melville, Reynolds explains that these authors, who viewed the revolutions skeptically, were moved to incorporate into their masterpieces the imagery and issues attracting public attention around them. Focusing on Whitman's fascination with the revolutionary events he covered as an editor, Reynolds describes how under their influence Whitman conceived himself as a poet of insurrection and began Leaves of Grass. He concludes with Thoreau, showing how residual excitement about the revolutions led to the reshaping of Walden into a spiritual autobiography emphasizing purity and serenity.
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Students at the Pont de la Concorde
Headlines of the New York Tribune 22 April 1848
Engraving of La1nartine on Front Page of the New York Herald
Emerson and The Movement
National Workshop Tailors in the Prison of Clichy at Paris
The Red Revolution
The June DaysPlace Maubert Paris
Women on a Barricade Near the Porte St Denis Paris during
The Scarlet Letter and Revolutions Abroad
Woodcut in the Boston Post 14 June 1849
The Death of Louis XVI
MobyDick and the Matter of France
French MenofWar in Typee Bay
Peche de la Baleine detail by Ambroise Louis Garneray
Revolution Martyrdom and Leaves of Grass
Kossuth Fever and the Serenity of Walden
Battle at the Porta San Pancrazi0
JSTOR: European Revolutions and the American Literary Renaissance.
Reviews larry J. reynolds, European Revolutions and the American Literary Renaissance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1988. Pp. xvi + 207. ...
University of Chicago Press - Historicizing the American ...
European Revolutions and the American Literary Renaissance Larry J. Reynolds; Manhood and the American Renaissance David Leverenz. Modern Philology ...
www.journals.uchicago.edu/ cgi-bin/ resolve?id=doi:10.1086/ 391924
Recolonizing America. Michael Rogin. European Revolutions. and the American. Literary Renaissance. By Larry J. Reynolds. Yale University Press, ...
alh.oxfordjournals.org/ cgi/ reprint/ 2/ 1/ 144.pdf
United States and the 1848 Revolutions
European Revolutions and the American Literary Renaissance New Haven, 1988. Spencer, Donald Louis Kossuth and Young America Columbia, MO, 1977. ...
www.ohiou.edu/ ~chastain/ rz/ usa.htm
John Evelev - "Every One to His Trade": Mardi, Literary Form, and ...
On New York City's enthusiastic response to the revolutions, see Larry J. Reynolds, European Revolutions and the American Literary Renaissance (New Haven: ...
muse.jhu.edu/ journals/ american_literature/ v075/ 75.2evelev.html
Caliber - Nineteenth-Century Literature - 44(4):534 - Citation
Posted online on August 15, 2007. (doi:10.1525/ncl.1922.214.171.124p0273g). European Revolutions and the American Literary Renaissance. . Larry J. Reynolds . ...
caliber.ucpress.net/ doi/ abs/ 10.1525/ ncl.19126.96.36.199p0273g
ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: AMERICAN BARDS: JAMES M. WHITFIELD ...
ABSTRACT. Title of Dissertation:. AMERICAN BARDS: JAMES M. WHITFIELD, ELIZA R. SNOW, JOHN. ROLLIN RIDGE, AND WALT WHITMAN. Edward K. Whitley, Ph.D., 2004 ...
drum.umd.edu/ dspace/ bitstream/ 1903/ 1739/ 1/ umi-umd-1713.pdf