Elementary surveying: an introduction to geomatics
Updated throughout, this highly readable best-seller presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying (geomatics) practice. Its depth and breadth are ideal for self-study.Includes a new Chapter 16 on Kinematic GPS. Features several new sections on machine control, localization of GPS surveys, and construction staking using GPS added to Chapters 16, 19, and 23. Moves Astronomical observations chapter to Appendix C to reflect that in recent years, kinematic GPS has replaced astronomical observations for position and azimuth. Emphasizes total stations as the instruments for making angle and distance observations.A useful reference for civil engineers.
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STATE PLANE COORDINATES
UNITS SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC
35 other sections not shown
accuracy adjustment antenna approximately axis azimuth backsight base station baseline bearings benchmark bubble calculated Chapter computed contour control points coordinate system corrections data collectors departures and latitudes determined differential leveling direction discussed in Section EDM instruments elevation differences ellipsoid equipment errors example FGCS field notes frequency geocentric coordinates geoid geometric GPS surveys height horizontal angle ionospheric kinematic least-squares Leica Geosystems level vial line of sight locations magnetic magnetic bearing magnetic declination matrix measured meridian meters method metric system minus sights misclosure mistakes National Geodetic Survey normal distribution obtained orthometric height plane Point of Beginning position precise Problem procedure Professional Surveyor pseudorange reference refraction rod readings rover satellite scale screws setup shown in Figure signals significant figures slope distance solution standard deviation tapeperson telescope tion Topcon total station instrument traverse tribrach tripod types values vertical zenith angle