Chronology and evolution of Mars: proceedings of an ISSI workshop, 10-14 April 2000, Bern, Switzerland
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001 - Medical - 491 pages
This book results from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland, where geochemists, geophysicists, and photogeologists have combined their expertise to constrain the timescales and geological processes in the evolution of Mars. In order to achieve this goal, the ages of cratered lunar surfaces, which are dated precisely by the radiometric ages of returned samples, have been taken as a reference for the inner solar system chronology. The derived ages of cratered geological units on Mars indicate ongoing geological activity from about 4.5 Gyr ago till modern geologic time. Ancient surfaces involve primordial crustal material with strong magnetization that has remained from Mars' core formation within the first 20 Myr of the solar system, whereas other surfaces were created during major geological processing at about 3-4.5 Gyr ago, probably associated with a denser atmosphere and more fluvial environment, and also to exposures of volcanism. The youngest surfaces indicate volcanism, weathering, gullying, exhumation, and modest water release all operating within the last few 100~Myr, with the youngest detected flows at less than 10 Myr ago. Neither Earth nor Moon offers such a complete geological record. This picture is consistent with radiometric age data of Martian meteorites which indicate that Mars has not only ancient crustal material, as represented in the ALH84001 meteorite, but at least some geologically young igneous rocks with ages of a few 100 Myr. Remote sensing of the Martian surface identifies two broad groups of igneous rock units, basaltic and andesitic, as is confirmed by in-situ chemical analyses at the Pathfinder landing site. Based on these results, the book contains an update on the overall stratigraphic system and geologic processes of the Martian surface, and a recent review on the newest models of the Martian interior structure and on the knowledge about the history of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere.
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STOFFLER and G RYDER Stratigraphy and Isotope Ages of Lunar
G NEUKUM B A IVANOV and W K HARTMANN Cratering Records
B A IVANOV MarsMoon Cratering Rate Ratio Estimates
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abundance accretion Acta Apollo Apollo 15 areas asteroids basalts basin Bogard carbonate Carr Chassigny chondritic Chronology component Conf convection core formation Cosmochim crater counts crater densities cratering rate crust crystallization ages deposits diameter Dreibus early Earth Earth Planet Elysium Planitia estimated evidence evolution Figure fractionation gases Geochim geological Geophys Greeley Gyr ago Hartmann Icarus igneous Imbrium impact craters impact melt isochron isotopic isotopic composition Ivanov lava flows lherzolitic Luna 24 Lunar Planet magma Malin mare Mars Global Surveyor Martian atmosphere Martian mantle Martian meteorites Martian surface Melosh minerals Moon Nakhla nakhlites Neukum Noachian Nyquist observed olivine orbit outflow channels plagioclase planetary Planitia pre-Nectarian Proc processes projectile ratio Rb-Sr region regolith rocks samples Science shergottites silicate Sm-Nd SNC meteorites solar system Space Sci spectral Stoffler suggest Tanaka tectonic temperature terrain terrestrial planets Tharsis thermal thickness velocity Viking volatile volcanic Wanke Zagami