Practical Electrical Equipment and Installations in Hazardous Areas (Google eBook)
Newnes, Feb 15, 2005 - Technology & Engineering - 424 pages
This book provides the reader with an understanding of the hazards involved in using electrical equipment in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres. It is based on the newly adopted international IEC79 Series of Standards that are now harmonizing and replacing older national Standards. Explosion-proof installations can be expensive to design, install and operate. The strategies and techniques described in this book can significantly reduce costs whilst maintaining plant safety. The book explains the associated terminology and its correct use - from Area Classification through to the selection of explosion-protected electrical apparatus, describing how protection is achieved and maintained in line with these international requirements. The IEC standards require that engineering staff and their management are trained effectively and safely in Hazardous Areas, and this book is designed to help fulfill that need. A basic understanding of instrumentation and electrical theory would be of benefit to the reader, but no previous knowledge of hazardous area installation is required.
* An engineer's guide to the hazards and best practice for using electrical equipment in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres.
* Fully in line with the newly adopted international standards, the IEC79 series.
* Clear explanations of terminology and background information make this the most accessible book on this subject.
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16 ATEX Directive
IEC series standard titles for explosive atmospheres
Listing of IS standards and codes of practice by country
IEC 7917 Ex i inspection schedule
Familiarization with electricity
9 Protection concept p
10 Other concepts
11 Earthing and bonding
13 Inspection and maintenance
14 Safe working practices
15 Faultfinding and testing
ambient temperature applied area classification artificial ventilation assessment associated apparatus ATEX Directive barrier busbar cable capacitance Category CE marking CENELEC certified combustible components conductors conformity conformity assessment devices Directive 94/9/EC documentation electrical apparatus electrical equipment energy ensure example explosion protection explosion-protection fault firedamp flameproof enclosure flammable atmosphere flammable gas flammable limit flammable material fuse galvanic isolation gas and vapor gas or vapor gases hazardous area ignition temperature inspection installation instrument insulation interface intrinsically safe circuits isolation leakage limit liquid loop manufacturer maximum mechanical methane method minimum mixture motors multicore cables normal operation parameters plant potentially explosive atmospheres pressure protection concept purging requirements resistance risk safe area safety description sealed devices simple apparatus source of release spark specific standards suitable supply switch T3 IIA technique temperature class terminals type of protection ventilation voltage Zener diode Zone 21
Page i - Practical Digital Signal Processing for Engineers and Technicians (Edmund Lai) Practical Electrical Network Automation and Communication Systems (Cobus Strauss) Practical Embedded Controllers (John Park) Practical Fiber Optics (David Bailey, Edwin Wright) Practical Industrial Data Networks: Design, Installation and Troubleshooting (Steve Mackay, Edwin Wright, John Park, Deon Reynders) Practical Industrial Safety, Risk Assessment and Shutdown Systems...
Page 5 - Incorporation, are as follows: by scientific investigation, study, experiments, and tests to determine the relation of various materials, devices, constructions, and methods to life, fire, and casualty hazards, and to ascertain, define, and publish standards, classifications, and specifications for materials, devices, constructions, and methods affecting such hazards, and other information tending to reduce and prevent loss of life and property from fire, crime, and casualty In the beginning, the...
Page 14 - At first the valve is closed and all the water is in tank A. Thus, the water pressure across the valve is at maximum. When the valve is opened, the water flows through the pipe from A to B until the water level becomes the same in both tanks. The water then stops flowing in the pipe, because there is no longer a difference in water pressure between the two tanks.
Page 6 - Regulation 27. All conductors and apparatus exposed to the weather, wet, corrosion, inflammable surroundings or explosive atmosphere, or used in any process or for any special purpose other than for lighting or power, shall be so constructed or protected, and such special precautions shall be taken as may he necessary adequately to prevent danger in view of such exposure or use.
Page 15 - A large electric motor or air dryer consumes more power (and draws more current) in a given length of time than, for example, an indicating light on a motor controller. Work is done whenever a force causes motion. If a mechanical force is used to lift or move a weight, work is done. However, force exerted without causing motion, such as the force of a compressed spring acting between two fixed objects, does not constitute work.
Page 33 - In which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation, and if it occurs it will exist only for a short time.
Page 14 - Difference in potential. When a difference in potential exists between two charged bodies that are connected by a conductor, electrons will flow along the conductor. This flow is from the negatively charged body to the positively charged body until the two charges are equalized and the potential difference no longer exists. An analogy of this action is shown in the two water tanks connected by a pipe and valve in figure 2-19.