Practical Electrical Equipment and Installations in Hazardous Areas (Google eBook)

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Newnes, Feb 15, 2005 - Technology & Engineering - 424 pages
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This book provides the reader with an understanding of the hazards involved in using electrical equipment in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres. It is based on the newly adopted international IEC79 Series of Standards that are now harmonizing and replacing older national Standards. Explosion-proof installations can be expensive to design, install and operate. The strategies and techniques described in this book can significantly reduce costs whilst maintaining plant safety. The book explains the associated terminology and its correct use - from Area Classification through to the selection of explosion-protected electrical apparatus, describing how protection is achieved and maintained in line with these international requirements. The IEC standards require that engineering staff and their management are trained effectively and safely in Hazardous Areas, and this book is designed to help fulfill that need. A basic understanding of instrumentation and electrical theory would be of benefit to the reader, but no previous knowledge of hazardous area installation is required.

* An engineer's guide to the hazards and best practice for using electrical equipment in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres.
* Fully in line with the newly adopted international standards, the IEC79 series.
* Clear explanations of terminology and background information make this the most accessible book on this subject.
  

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
2 Electrical energy ignition and flammability
10
3 Area classification
27
4 Design philosophy and selection of equipmentapparatus
81
5 Protection concept d
106
6 Protection concept e
124
7 Protection concept n
138
8 Protection concept i principles
144
16 ATEX Directive
318
IEC series standard titles for explosive atmospheres
352
Listing of IS standards and codes of practice by country
355
IEC 7917 Ex i inspection schedule
357
CENELEC members
359
IP code
360
Standards reference
361
Familiarization with electricity
362

9 Protection concept p
184
10 Other concepts
198
11 Earthing and bonding
207
12 Installations
234
13 Inspection and maintenance
270
14 Safe working practices
282
15 Faultfinding and testing
302
ATEX Directive
372
Properties of combustible compounds
374
Important changes to ASNZS 23811
377
Practical exercises for hazardous area course
381
Index
405
Copyright

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Page 14 - At first the valve is closed and all the water is in tank A. Thus, the water pressure across the valve is at maximum. When the valve is opened, the water flows through the pipe from A to B until the water level becomes the same in both tanks. The water then stops flowing in the pipe, because there is no longer a difference in water pressure between the two tanks.
Page 6 - Regulation 27. All conductors and apparatus exposed to the weather, wet, corrosion, inflammable surroundings or explosive atmosphere, or used in any process or for any special purpose other than for lighting or power, shall be so constructed or protected, and such special precautions shall be taken as may he necessary adequately to prevent danger in view of such exposure or use.
Page 15 - A large electric motor or air dryer consumes more power (and draws more current) in a given length of time than, for example, an indicating light on a motor controller. Work is done whenever a force causes motion. If a mechanical force is used to lift or move a weight, work is done. However, force exerted without causing motion, such as the force of a compressed spring acting between two fixed objects, does not constitute work.
Page 33 - In which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation, and if it occurs it will exist only for a short time.
Page 14 - Difference in potential. When a difference in potential exists between two charged bodies that are connected by a conductor, electrons will flow along the conductor. This flow is from the negatively charged body to the positively charged body until the two charges are equalized and the potential difference no longer exists. An analogy of this action is shown in the two water tanks connected by a pipe and valve in figure 2-19.