Ecophysiology of Economic Plants in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands
Eeonomie plants range from those that are eommercially utilised by the industrial nations of the world to those that safeguard the survival of hunter-gatherer aboriginal eommunities. In a world of inereasing human and livestock populations, land and environment degradation, species loss and climatic change, it is becoming inerea singly important to work for the sustainable management of the world's natural resourees. This is especially important for the arid and semi-arid regions where any abuse of the harsh environment is unforgiving. Plant resourees are especially important sinee they proteet the environment, provide habitats for both flora and fauna, and direetly or indireetly provide the resourees for man's survival. An understanding of how plants are adapted to survive is an essential tool for the better management of the environment. Sinee there are over 20000 useful plants in the arid and sem i-arid regions of the world, of which only a relative few have been even partially investigated, the writer makes no apologies for whieh plants have been included or ignored. All the plants mentioned in the introductory ehap ters marked with an asterisk are diseussed more fully in Chapter 11.
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Economic Plants and Arid and SemiArid Lands
Arid and Semiarid Regions and Ecosystems
Acacia acid Africa annual rainfall aphylla areas arid and semi-arid Artemisia Atriplex Australia bark Benth Boulos branches Breckle browsed Caesalpinioideae cells Chenopodiaceae climate cm long coastal Compositae cultivated Danin deciduous desert dominated drought dry season dunes eaten evergreen forest Forssk fruit germination Gramineae grasses grassland growing growth halophytes Haloxylon II-III III-IV IIlwr Larrea leaf leaves Leguminosae Leptadenia pyrotechnica livestock lower mean annual Mediterranean moisture mountains Muell nitrogen northern occur osmotic Papilionoideae perennial photosynthesis photosynthetic phyllodes plain plants precipitation proline Prosopis rain recognised reduced region root system Sahara saline Salsola salt sand sandy seeds Seriphidium shoots shrub shrubland slopes soils Sonora Sonoran Desert southern species stems steppe Stipa Stipagrostis stomata subshrubs subsp subzone succulent summer surface Table tall Tamarix taproot temperature tissue tolerant toxic transpiration tree vegetation Walter and Breckle water potential Wickens widely distributed winter xerophytic Zohary