Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction: Studies in Modern Social Structure

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K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company, Limited, 1940 - Social Science - 467 pages
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Contents

I
3
The Need for a Psychology which would be Socially
15
IV
27
Copyright

46 other sections not shown

Common terms and phrases

abstract abstract laws action activities Adam operate Adolf Lowe Albert Rhys Williams analysis Anglo-Saxon literature attitudes Auslandsdeutsch become behaviour behaviourists Berlin bibliography bourgeoisie bureaucracy Calverton Carl Brinkmann certain changes Charles Maurras classes competition concrete conflict cultural Czarist Russia defence mechanisms democracy democratic dictatorship division of labour economic Edward Shils elements elites Elton Mayo empiricism exist extraversion and introversion fact factors Fascism Fighting Instinct forces Franz Oppenheimer freedom freedom and revolution Friedrich Meinecke Friedrich Schlegel functionally rational German Graham Wallas groups Hans Speier Harold D homo economicus Houston Stewart Chamberlain human human behaviour human nature impulses individual industrial industrial society influence ing groups insecurity institutions integration intellectual intelligentsia invention irrational irrationality isolates psychology itself Jena L. T. Hobhouse laissez-faire Leipzig level of inventive liberal liberal democratic London Lorenz von Stein Louis Wirth lower middle class maladjustment Mannheim mass society Matthias Claudius Max Weber means mechanical solidarity mechanisms methods modern moral Morris Ginsberg National Socialist natural selection nature negative selection neurosis organization Pierre Janet planned society point of view political possible principia media principle problem proletariat propaganda psycho psychological Psychology of Society regulation Republican Germany Sadism Schelting sciences scientific situation social classes social control Social Disorganization social mechanism social order social process social psychology social sciences social technique sociological sociologists sociology of culture Sociology of Knowledge spheres stage structural unemployment structure sublimation tendencies thinking thought tion to-day totalitarian transformation type of thinking Utopia Vilfredo Pareto Weimar Republic whole York

About the author (1940)

Karl Mannheim, a Hungarian-born German sociologist, taught at the Universities of Heidelberg and Frankfurt until 1933, when the coming of the Nazis to power forced him to find refuge at the University of London. His major fields of inquiry were the sociology of knowledge and the sociology of intellectual life. His masterpiece, "Ideology and Utopia" (1936), asserts that there are two types of knowledge: true knowledge based on science and knowledge based on social class. Ideas are of two types: "utopian" ideas support underprivileged groups, while "ideologies" support privileged groups. Mannheim, studying the trend toward increasing centralization, believed that modern society is dominated by large, powerful, impersonal organizations; as they consolidate, they will be controlled by powerful elites. He urged that, since this trend is inevitable, power should rest in the hands of unbiased intellectuals. He hoped that planning by trained social scientists could preserve and foster democracy. Mannheim's pioneering work in the sociology of knowledge had relatively little direct influence on contemporary research, but his bringing the concept of ideology to the attention of sociologists was of consequential importance.

Edward Shils, an American sociologist, is a professor at both the University of Chicago and King's College, Cambridge. The editors of a Festschrift prepared in his honor note that he has been a pioneer in clearing up the logical confusion over the concept of ideology and in exploring the role of intellectuals in contemporary life. Shils's work on the institutionalization of sociology as an academic discipline has been fundamental to all discussions of this question. His interest in sociological concepts has been valuable in analyzing political and cultural leadership and societal cohesion. These concepts include his interpretation of "charisma," his own concepts of "center" and "periphery," and his revision of the term "mass society." Shils also introduced into sociology the concept of "scientific community," now central to the sociology of science. He is the founding editor of Minerva, a major journal in the field of higher education and the sociology of knowledge generally.

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