Vacuum Sealing Techniques (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 1994 - Technology & Engineering - 845 pages
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Market: Scientists, engineers, and graduate students in vacuum technology. This volume presents numerous techniques developed in the early 1960s for the efficient construction of reliable vacuum seals, and provides critical insights into the design, construction, and assembly of vacuum systems. Extensively researched, this work covers a variety of sealing techniques and design concepts that remain as technologically relevant now as they were nearly three decades ago.
  

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Contents

c Seals with gaskets of special shapes
410
3852 Conical seals
413
3853 Cylindrical seals
416
b Compression gasket seals
418
c Lip seals
420
3854 Dumbbell seals
421
3855 Shear seals
423
3856 Ridge seals
425

1332 Test gas methods
11
141 Vacuum tightness the essential requirement
12
142 Functional requirements
13
1424 Radiant energy transmission
18
1432 Low temperature cryogenic seals
19
1433 Corrosion resistance
21
1434 Cost requirements
22
PERMANENT SEALS
23
2112 Permeability to gases
27
2113 Degassing
34
212 Metal vessels and pipes
43
213 Glass quartz vessels and pipes
46
214 Elastomer and plastic pipes
52
22 Metal to metal welding and Brazing
57
2211 Welding methods
58
2212 Weldability of metals and alloys
67
222 Brazing
70
2221 Brazing methods
71
2222 Brazing materials
73
223 Vacuum sealing by welding and brazing
83
2232 Welded seals
88
2233 Brazed seals
93
23 Glass to glass and quartz seals
101
2312 Expansion matching
107
2313 Annealing
112
232 Working procedures for glass and quartz
116
2322 Cutting methods for glass
119
2323 Heating methods for glass to glass sealing
121
233 Glass to glass and quartz sealing techniques
126
2331 Butt seals
128
2332 Side seals
130
2333 End seals
131
24 Glass to metal seals
134
2411 Glassmetal bond
135
2412 Expansion matching
138
2413 Control of the cooling annealing
142
2414 The shape of the seal
143
242 Heating and working techniques
151
243 Matched seals
154
b Sealing of ironnickel alloys
156
d Sealing of ironnickelchromium alloys
157
f Iron seals
162
b Molybdenum seals
166
c Ironnickelcobalt alloy seals
167
d Zirconium seals
169
2441 Housekeeper seals
170
2442 Quartz to metal seals
181
2443 Glassmetal compression seals
185
245 Faults in glassglass and glassmetal seals and their detection
189
25 Ceramic to glass and ceramic to metal seals
197
2512 Materials used in ceramicmetal seals
200
252 Sealing techniques
201
b Ceramicglazemetal seals
203
c Ceramicglassmetal seals
205
2522 Ceramicmetal sintered seals
208
2523 Active metal processes
211
a Hydride process
212
b Active metal powders
213
c Carbide seals
214
e Massive active metal seals
215
2524 Compression diffusion seals
216
2525 Various ceramicmetal seals
218
253 Possibility of brazing ceramicmetal seals
220
254 Ceramicmetal seal shapes
222
255 Testing of glassceramicmetal seals
224
26 Sealing and sealingoff
225
2612 Butt sealing
226
2613 Diffusion seal
227
262 Sealingoff glass exhaust tubes
228
2622 Sealingoff large diameter tubes
230
263 Sealingoff metal exhaust tubes vessels
231
2632 Sealingoff with valves
233
2633 Brazed sealoff
234
SEMIPERMANENT AND DEMOUNTABLE SEALS
236
32 Sealing with paints and plastics
244
322 Sealing of plastics and the use of plastics for sealing
247
33 Sealing with epoxy resins
248
332 Preparing the adhesives and completing the joints
253
3323 Curing
255
333 Vacuum sealing with epoxy resins
256
3332 Lap joints
257
34 Silver chlorides seals
258
35 Soft soldering
260
3512 Soft soldering of metal parts
261
3513 Soft soldering of glass and ceramic parts
266
352 Vacuum sealing with solder glasses
269
36 Ground and lapped seals
274
361 Flat seals
275
362 Conical and cylindrical ground seals
277
363 Spherical ground seals
285
364 Assembly and maintenance of ground seals
287
37 Liquid seals
293
371 Hydrostatic seals
294
372 Mercury sealed ground and gasket joints
295
3721 Cup seals
297
3722 Immersion seals
298
3723 Guard seals
299
374 Oil seals
300
375 Surface tension seals
303
376 Molten metal seals
305
38 Gasket seals
306
382 Leaking mechanism in gasket seals
311
3821 Leak through the seal
312
3822 Leak through the gasket
313
3823 Guard vacuum in the seals
314
383 Gaskets materials and shapes
319
3832 Fluocarbons for gaskets
323
3833 Metals for gaskets
328
3834 Gasket shapes
345
a Grooves with rectangular cross section
348
b Grooves with triangular cross section
355
c Grooves with trapezium cross section
356
d Grooves with semicircular and elliptical cross section
359
e Grooves for rectangular flanges
360
3842 Spacer seals
361
3843 Conical seals
369
3844 Corner seals
380
3845 Step seals
382
3846 Cemented seals
384
3847 Standard flanges and unions for Oring seals
388
3848 Assembly and maintenance of Oring seals
396
385 Thick gasket seals
403
b Groove seals
407
a Tongue seals
426
b Knife edge seals
427
3857 Inflatable gasket seals
437
3858 Assembly and maintenance of gasket seals
438
386 Thin gasket seals
440
3863 Surface friction seals
443
TRANSMISSION OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT THROUGH SEALS
445
4112 Surface resistivity
447
4113 Dielectric properties
449
4114 Electrolytic effects
451
413 Frequency
452
421 Rod seals
453
422 Stem seals
458
423 Pin seals
462
424 Ribbon seals
465
425 Disc and cup seals
467
43 Demountable leadthroughs
471
432 Gasketsealed leadthroughs
473
433 Commercially available leadthroughs
481
THE TRANSMISSION OF MOTION THROUGH SEALS
491
512 Transmission of motion by tilting the vacuum device
494
514 Transmission of motion using bellows
498
515 Transmission of motion using diaphragms
505
516 Transmission of motion using ground seals
508
517 Transmission of motion using gasket seals
510
5171 Oring seals for transmitting motion
511
5172 Rim seals for transmitting motion
514
5173 Cylindrical and conical seals for transmitting motion
515
5174 Lip seals
517
5175 Springloaded lip seals
520
5176 Friction seals
522
5177 Commercially available shaft seals
525
5178 Seals for angular displacement
529
518 Motion seals using a guard vacuum
537
52 Magnetic transmission
539
522 Rotary motion transmitted by magnetic fields
541
53 Actuation by heat transfer or electric current
543
532 Irreversible motion by burningout
544
533 Actuation with electric current
545
SEALS USED IN THE TRANSFER OF MATERIALS
546
6112 Actuating devices in cutoffs
547
b Locking devices
549
6113 Closing systems in cutoffs
552
c Cutoffs with sintered glass
556
d Cutoffs with molten metals
557
612 Stopcocks
558
6122 Greased stopcocks
562
6123 Greaseless stopcocks
565
613 Valves
566
6132 Closing systems of valves
571
b Closing systems using molten metals
572
c Closing systems using silver chloride
575
d Closing systems based on fusing glass joints
576
f Closing systems using clamped elastomer tubes
580
g Closing systems using diaphragms
581
h Closing systems using gasket seals
583
6133 Sealing systems of valves
616
b Packless valves
617
6134 Operating systems of valves
619
c Electromagnetically operated valves
624
d Valves operated by thermal expansion
631
6135 Valves for specific purposes
632
a Sealoff valves
633
d Baffle valves
635
e Nonreturn valves
637
f Bakeable and ultrahigh vacuum valves ground Joint fused glass molten metal and allmetal valves
638
g Multiway valve blocks
653
6136 Maintenance of valves
659
6142 Pinholes orifices and cracks used as leaks
664
6143 Capillaries and flattened tubes used as leaks
668
6144 Pourous plugs used as leaks
671
6145 Annular impedances used as leaks
673
6146 Needle valves
676
6147 Temperatureactuated leaks
679
6148 Diffusion leaks
682
6149 Pulsed leaks
685
615 Techniques for opening sealed gas container
687
6151 Opening by striking
688
6152 Opening by bending
690
6153 Opening by punching
691
6154 Opening by squeezing
692
62 Transfer of liquids through seals
693
63 Transfer of solids through seals
697
6311 Vacuum locks using sliding rods
698
6113 Vacuum locks using chambers with double ports
700
632 Electrolytic transfer through glass walls
702
SEALS USED IN TRANSMITTING RADIATION
704
7112 Windows for ultraviolet
705
7114 Windows for alpha particles
706
7115 Windows for beta particles
707
7116 Windows for gamma and X rays
708
7117 Windows for neutrons
709
7131 Glass and quartz windows
710
b Thin windows
711
7132 Ceramic windows
714
7133 Salt windows
715
7135 Selfsupporting windows
716
b Metal carbon foils
719
c Oxide films
721
72 Window sealing techniques
725
722 Brazed and soldered windows
726
723 Waxed windows
728
724 Solder glass sealed windows
729
725 Epoxy resin sealed windows
732
726 Silver chloride sealed windows
734
727 Windows joined with compression seals
737
728 Windows sealed with elastomer gaskets
738
729 Windows sealed with metal gaskets
741
Appendix A FORMULAE AND CONVERSION FACTORS
746
A2 Conductance and Pumping Speed Units
747
A3 Throughput and leak rate units
748
A4 Permeability units
749
A5 Conductance formulae
750
APPENDIX B PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF SEALING MATERIALS
751
B2 Thermal Properties
752
B3 Thermal points of glass
754
B4 Vapour pressure and degassing properties
756
B5 Vapour pressure of water ice and mercury
758
B6 Electrical Properties
759
REFERENCES
761
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
813
INDEX
817
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 6 - As applied to gas flow through solids, permeation is the passage of gas into, through, and out of a solid barrier having no holes large enough to permit more than a small fraction of the gas to pass through any one hole. The process always involves diffusion through the solid and may involve various surface phenomena, such as sorption, dissociation, migration, and desorption of the gas molecules.
Page 9 - Table 1 . virtual leak (/) the semblance of a leak in a vacuum system caused by slow release of trapped gas. (2) during a rate-of-rise test, the semblance of a leak in a vacuum system caused by slow release of sorbed or occluded gas or gases on or in the surfaces and pores of all materials in a system which has been exposed to atmospheric pressure prior to evacuation.

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