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A. L. Shigo American beech American elm arborists arrows show associated bacteria barrier zone beech beetles borer boundaries branch collar buds callus canker rots cause cavities cells close codominant stems column of discolored compartmentalization conifers cracks crotch dead branches decay-causing decayed wood develop difﬁcult discolored and decayed discolored wood disease dissected Dutch elm disease energy reserves eucalypts Figure ﬁr ﬁre ﬁrst flush cut forest fungi fungus grow growth increments growth rings healthy heartwood holes included bark infected wood injury kill living trees microorganisms nonwoody Note organisms paper birch parenchyma pathogens patterns phloem Phytopathology pine plants problems produce protection zone pruning cuts radial rapidly red maple red oak resist root rots sapwood shown in ﬁgure species spores sprout stubs stump sugar maple survival treatment Tree Biology trunk collar trunk tissues vascular cambium wall wetwood white arrows wood present wound dressing yellow birch