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availability of external average base money commercial banks debt servicing debt to GNP deficit to GDP depress private developing countries domestic debt domestic interest rate domestic nonbank borrowing economy eighties external current account external debt external financing federal and provincial fiscal adjustment fiscal deficit reduction fiscal policy foreign debt government consumption government debt government investment Haque and Montiel higher indirect taxes inflation tax inflationary interest payments INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND intertemporal budget constraint lending lower public capital macroeconomic marginal cost output Pakistan has experienced Pakistan's fiscal percent of GNP period policy in Pakistan private capital stock private disposable income private investment private sector provincial governments public capital stock public consumption public investment public sector securities rate of depreciation rate of growth rate of inflation ratio to GNP real interest rate reduced result scenarios seignorage spending supply shock tax revenues trade balance variables willingly held Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto