quarter where alone a MacLcan could fear his power, namely, in the secret councils of the state, or in the private closet of an erratic sovereign.

The removal of King James from the court of Edinburgh to that of London, on the whole, had a beneficial effect on the Isles. The laws now enacted, from time to time, for the better government of the Isles, began to be felt with good effect throughout the Highlands generally. The deadly family feuds, so inimical to the happiness of the people, were now of rare occurrence, and the chiefs themselves became more and more reconciled to such measures as were deemed advisable for the permanent welfare of the inhabitants.

The government issued a summons in the year 1616 commanding the attendance before the privy council (Scottish) of Hector Og, chief of MacLean; Lnchlan MacLean of Torloisk, brother of Duard ; Hector MacLean of Lochbuy; Lachlan MacLean of Coll; Sir Ruari MacLeod of Harris; Sir Lachlan MacKinnon of MacKinnon, and Sir Donald MacDonald, chief of the Clanranald ; and as these chiefs had not made their appearance during the previous year, on account of the insurrection, very strict measures were now taken in order to insure their obedience in the future. "They were obliged to bind themselves mutually, as sureties for each other, to the observance of the following conditions: First, That their clans should keep good order, and that they themselves should appear before the council, annually, on the 10th of July, and oftener if required and on being legally summoned. Secondly, That they should exhibit annually a certain number of their principal kinsman, out of a larger number contained in a list given by them to the council. Duard was to exhibit four; MacLeod, three; Clanranald three; and Coll, Lochbuy and MacKinnon, one of these chieftains, or heads of houses, in their clans respectively. Thirdly, That they were not to maintain in household more than the following proportions of gentlemen, according to their rank, viz.: Duard, eight ; MacLeod and Clanranald, six; and the others three each. Fourthly, That they were to free their countries of »orners and idle men having no lawful occupation. Fifthly, That none of them were to carry hackbuts or pistols, unless when employed in the king's service; and that none but the chiefs and their household gentlemen were to wear swords, or armor, or any weapons whatever. Sixthly, That the chiefs were to reside at the following places respectively, viz.: MacLeod at Dunvegan, MacLean of Duard at that place, Clanranald at Elantcrim, MacLean of Coll at Bistache, Lochbuy at Moy, and MacKinnon at Kilmorie. Such of them as had not convenient dwelling-houses corresponding to their rank at these places were to build without delay, ' civil and comelie' houses, or repair those that were decayed. They were likewise to make 'policies and planting' about their houses; and to take mains, or house-farms, into their own hands, which they were to cultivate, ' to the effect they might be thereby exercised and eschew idleness.' Clanranald, who had no mains about his castle of Elanterim, chose for his home-farm the lands of Hobeg in Uist. Seventhly, that at the term of Martinmas next, they were to let the remainder of their lands to tenants, for a certain fixed rent, in lieu of all exactions. Eighthly, That no single chief should keep more than one birlinn, or gallev, of sixteen or eighteen oars; and that in their voyages through the Isles they should not oppress the country people. Ninthly, That they should send all their children above nine years of age to school in the Lowlands, to be instructed in reading, writing, and speaking the English language; and that none of their children should be served heir to their fathers, or received as a tenant by the king, who had not received that education. Lastly, The chiefs were not to use in their houses more than the following quantities of wine respectively, viz... Duard and MacLeod, four tun each; Clanranald three tun; and Coll, Lochbuy and MacKinnon, one tun each; and they were to take strict order throughout their whole estates that none of their tenants or vassals should buy or drink any wine. MacLean of Duard, and his brother Lachlan, having delayed to find the required sureties, were committed to ward in Edinburgh castle, whence he was liberated in a very short time, and allowed to live with Acheson of Gosford, his father-in-law, under his own recognizance of £40,000, and his father-in-law's for 50t10 merks, that he should remain there until permitted by the council to return to the Isles. Duard's brother was not liberated until the following year, when his own bond was taken for the conformity of himself and his son Hector to the obligations imposed upon the other Islanders in July 1616. His dwelling-place was to be at Ardnacross in Mull; and he was allowed to keep two gentlemen in his household. Donald Gorm of Slcat, having been prevented, by sickness, from attending the council with the other chiefs, ratified all their proceedings, and found the required sureties, by a bond dated in the month of August. He named Duntullim, a castle of his family in Trouterness, as his residence: and six household gentlemen, and an annual consumption of four tun of wine, were allowed to him; and he was annually to exhibit to council three of his principal kinsmen. These proceedings being communicated by the council to the king, were approved by his majesty; who, at the suit of the Islanders, ordered that the chiefs, and some of their immediate relations, might have

licence to use fire-arms for their own sport within a mile of their dwellings." *

In the following year, 1617, Hector Mac Lean of Lochbuy, Lachlan MacLean of Coll, Lachlan MacLean of Torloisk, Sir Ruari MacLeod of Harris, Sir Donald Gorm of Sleat, the captain of Clanranald, and Sir Lachlan MacKinnon of Strathordell, made their appearance before the council in the month of July.f

Hector Og died in the year 1618, in the fortieth year of his age. He was twice married: first, to Janet, daughter of Cailean Cam, 11th MacKenzie of Kintail, by whom he had Hector M6r, his heir and successor, and Lachlan; also one daughter, Florence, who married John Garbh, 7th MacLean of Coll. His second wife was Isabella, daughter of Sir Archibald Acheson of Gosford, by whom he had Donald, first MacLean of Brolass, John Dubh, predecessor of the counts MacLean of Sweden, and a daughter, Isabella, who died unmarried. The marriage of Florance to John Garbh affords an insight into marriage customs as practiced by the MacLeans. She was given a dower which consisted of a hundred and eighty kine, with the stipulation that if she became a widow, her jointure should be three hundred and sixty. Doubtless the number was reckoned according to the wealth of the contracting parties.

XVI. Eachann M6r, Sixteenth Chief of MacLean,

Or, Big Hector, the sixteenth chief of MacLean, eldest son of the first marriage of Hector Og, succeeded to an extensive and unincumbered estate, and at a period when the family had great influence, owing in part to its

'Gregory's Western Highlands, pp. 392-6. Taken from Rfcords I'riry Council, from 11th July, 1616, to 2-.M March, 1617.

+ Under the year 16'2'2, Gregory says: "Since the year 1617, the Islanders have continued with the exception of Hector MacLean of Duard) to make their annual appearance before the privy council with tolerable regularity. In July, 1619, the time for their yearly appearance was, at their own request, altered from July to February; but, in 1621, it wan again altered to July, owing to the uncertainty of the weather in spring. In the following year, Sir Ruaii MucLeod of Harris, Sir Donald Gorm of Sleat. John MacDonald, captain of the Clanranald. and the 1 'inU of Coll, Lochbuy and MacKinnon, made their obedience to the privy council, as usual, when several acts of importance relating to the Isles were passed. By the first of these they were bound to build and repair their parish churches to the satisfaction of the bishop of the Isles; and they promised to meet the bishop at Icolmkill, whenever he should appoint, to '"like the necessary arrangements in the matter. The bishop, at this time, promised to appoint a qualified commissary for the Isles—complaints having been made on this head. By another act, masters of vessels were prohibited, under the penalty of the confiscation of the article, to carry more wine to the Isles than the quantity allowed to the chiefs and gentlemen by the act of 1617."— Westrm Highlands, p. 404.

matrimonial alliances. The judicious management of the possessions and the policy pursued by his father secured to him a strong protecting influence throughout the country. By nature, Hector M6r was inactive and inclined to a peaceful life, being content with his position and surroundings. His character was not one that was likely to embark in any measure that might prove disadvantageous. For some reason, not now known, he became indebted, as the following, taken from an act of the privy council, March 28, 1622, sets forth: "Sir Rory McKenzie of Cogache hes action aganist Sir John McDougall of Dunnolich, narrating That quhair Hector McClane of Dowart his brother in law being put at as weill for his Majesteis dewteis as for debts to his creditors quhairby his house wes lyke to be ruined; and Sir Rorie out of regaird to him and standing of his house having not only tane on him the burden of .the said Hector's debts but the yeirlie payment of his Majesteis dutie extending to tua thousand fyve hundred merkis, for quhilk he had got a rycht to the said Hector's estate: And the said Sir John MacDougall having caused his officers and servants quho attendit at Ferreis opposite to the Isle of Mull quhair the Tennents of Mull wer accustumed to land with thair goodis to be sold in the country to mak (provisioun) for payment of his Majesties dutie, exact a certane tole for the saidis goodis, molesting and invading them if they rcfuised. Sir Johne and his officers ar ordained to be denunceit (rebels) thairfoir." *

Hector M6r was married to Margaret, eldest daughter of Sir Roderick MacLeod of MacLeod, and died without issue in 1626. His widow married ^Kneas MacDonnclI, 7th of Glengarry.

In the person of Hector M6r occurred the first failure in the direct and immediate succession, from father to son, among the chiefs of MacLean; the eldest son of every preceding chief having regularly succeeded to his father's titles and estates for upward of four hundred years, from Gillean, the founder of the clan, to Hector Mor.

XVII. Sir Lachlan MacLean, Bart,, Seventeenth Chief of MacLean.

Hector Mor was succeeded by his brother Lachlan, seventeenth chieftain, and first baronet, who came into possession under the most favorable circumstances. The clan had long been at peace, all its forces well recruited and just as loyal to its chief as at any time in its previous history. Lachlan had power and influence sufficient to guard him against open attack from any enemy in his immediate neighborhood, possessing the favor of the king

* Collectanea de Rebus Albauicis, p. 154.

(Charles I.) as some security against treacherous misrepresentations at court, he had nothing to fear from open or secret enmity; and his irreconcilable foe, Archibald Campbell, who became eighth earl of Argyle in 1638 (although he enjoyed the estate for many years before, as his father had been proclaimed an outlaw), and afterward marquis, but known as Gillespie Qruamach (Archibald the morose), made many attempts to entrap him in his coils. This Argyle was by far the ablest of his family that has ever lived, and a man greatly to be feared. As he is a prominent figure in this period of Scotland's history, it will be of importance to give an estimate of his character, especially when it is considered what two successive chiefs of MacLenn had to contend against. Browne says of him: "There is nothing in his conduct which can be justified by the impartial historian. Duplicity, cunning, cowardice, and avarice, were his characteristic traits. His zeal for religion and the covenant was a mere pretence 'to enable him to obtain that ascendency among the covenanters which he acquired, and his affected patriotism was regulated entirely by his personal interests." * Again: "Argyle's talents were more fitted for the intrigues of the cabinet than the tactics of the field.'' f "A man equally supple and inflexible, cautious and determined, and entirely qualified to make a figure during a factious and turbulent period." t "Argyle was the head of a party as well as the head of a tribe. Possessed of two different kinds of authority, he used each of them in such a way as to extend and fortify the other." || This Argyle not only asserted the cause of Charles IL, and placed the crown on his head (January 1, 1651), but afterward assisted in the ceremony of proclaiming Cromwell Protector, and signed an engagement to support the usurper's government. On the restoration of the monarchy, he again faced about and hastened to London to congratulate Charles on his success. When James Graham, the great Montrose, was led to execution, and while the people were weeping at the sight of fallen greatness and invoking the blessings of heaven upon the head of the illustrious

9 History of the Highland Clans, Vol. II., p. 93. t Ibid., Vol. I., p. 355. % Hume's History of England, Vol. V., p. 106.

| Macaulay's History of England, Vol. Ill., p. 288. This author also adds.: "A peculiar dexterity, a peculiar plausibility of address, a peculiar contempt for the obligations of plighted faith, were ascribed, with or without reason, to the dreaded race. 'Fair and false like a Campbell,' became a proverb. It was said that MacC'allum More alter MncCallum More had, with unwearied, unscrupulous, and unrelenting ambition, annexed mountain after mountain and island after island to the original domains of his house. Some tribes had been expelled from their territory, some compelled to pay tribute, some incorporated with the conquerors."

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