The Evolution of Middle Eastern Landscapes: An Outline to A.D. 1840, Part 1840
This book provides a background to the modern geography of the Middle East by tracing the evolution of humanized managed landscapes from the domestication of cereals through to the initiation of the great transformations of the region in the mid-nineteenth century. By examining the natural potential of the region in terms of climate, natural vegetation and physical conditions, and charting the emergence of basic long-lasting traditional economies based on this environment, the author shows how the environment stimulated traditional life styles, which in turn perpetuated and molded the region.
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Introduction Dates and Definitions
The Measure of the Region
Domestication and the Beginnings of Farming
Modes of Living
The Earliest Civilisationsc5000525 BC
Hellenistic West and Persian East
Islam and the Arab ExpansionAD 5001500
abandoned Adams and Nissen agriculture Aleppo Anatolia animals Arab Arabia Ashtor Asia Minor basins became began Bulliet Butzer canals caravans cent central centres cereals climate communities crops cultivated area Delta deserted Diyala Valley domestication dromedaries dry-farming early eastern Egypt eighteenth century emergence established Euphrates European evidence expansion export farming flood forced Greek Gulf Hellenism Hellenistic important increased irrigation Islam Issawi Khuzestan labour land late lower Diyala Lower Mesopotamia major mean daily temperatures Mediterranean Middle East military modes of living Muslim Nile nineteenth century organisation Ottoman Empire Palestine pastoral nomads pattern perhaps period Persia plains political population ports precipitation probably production qanats Qur'an Red Sea region relatively river Roman routes Safavid Sasanian seasonal settled settlements silk southern spread steppe sub-region success suggested Syria territory Tigris tion towns trade Turkmen Upper Mesopotamia urban Uruk Valley vegetation villages western woodland Zagros Mountains
Middle East Patterns: Places, Peoples, and Politics
Colbert C. Held
No preview available - 2006