Optimism as a personal resource for coping in demanding situations: A notional case study in the field of youth sport (Google eBook)
Abstract Objective: The aim of the present paper is to explain the construct of optimism in relation to coping strategies. Furthermore, we researched about the possibilities to improve situational optimism in a notional case study. Method: Transactional theory of stress and coping by Lazarus (1982) is the initial point of this paper. We explained appraisal and coping processes and pointed out, that optimism is a needful resource to overcome demanding situations. In the following notional case study, with a young wrestler we used the Life Orientation Test (Scheier & Carver, 1994) and the CAVE-Technique to analyze optimism status. Afterwards we generated hermeneutic ideas to improve the given situational optimism status. Results: A four stadium model, including reflection-, confirmation-, implementation- and re-evaluation phase was created to increase situational optimism. With this, it was possible to reach higher control abilities and optimism. Conclusions: Situational optimism is improvable with the help of the given model. Therefore it is important to re-appraise the outcome to develop adaptation and transformation. Probably it is possible to transfuse situational optimism to dispositional optimism.
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2.1 Individualization abilities action adapt appraisal process athlete needs become aware behaviour big optimism cause of research CAVE-Technique Christopher 2000 circumstances cited by Scheier coach construct of optimism coping process coping strategies dispositional optimism Distinction between little Emotion focused coping evaluate external factors field of youth four stadium model Heitmeier & Olk high demanding situations high performers Implications for promoting internal and stable Lazarus & Folkmann Lazarus and Folkmann little optimism M.F. & Carver negative outcomes notional case study ongoing opponent Optimism analysis optimism status optimistic Orientation Test outcome of highly past defeat personal effort personal resource optimism pessimism pessimistic possible present paper Problem focused coping Promoting situational optimism psychological Rasmussen re-evaluation phase reach higher goals relation to coping research about stressmanagement Scheier & Carver Scheier and Carver Social Psychology specific optimism stay engaged stressmanagement models success Theoretical Background transactional theory young athlete young wrestler youngster youth sport