Fire and vegetative trends in the northern Rockies: interpretations from 1871-1982 photographs
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1984 - Fire ecology - 117 pages
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absence of fire areas Arno and Gruell aspen aspen stands Beaverhead National Forest bluebunch wheatgrass burned camera faces canyon bottom chokecherry Clark Fork River conifers Cool-dry Douglas-fir cottonwood courtesy cover Creek curlleaf mountain-mahogany density deteriorated distant slopes early successional Elevation evidence Fire Group foreground and midground Forest and Range formerly fuels G. E. Gruell grassland Gulch Indians July Lewis and Clark limber pine livestock grazing locality lodgepole pine mahogany miles Moist Douglas-fir moist sites Mont mountain big sagebrush mountain-mahogany occupied perennial grasses Photograph by G. E. photographer unknown plants ponderosa pine prescribed fire presettlement R. F. Wall regeneration resulted ridge Rocky Mountain juniper Sagebrush/grass seral shrubs slope at left slopes in distance snags snowberry South-Central Region species subalpine fir trees U.S. Department understory USFS USGS photograph valley vegetation W. C. Alden W. H. Jackson W. J. Reich western wildfire wildlife habitat willow young conifers