Semiconductor Spintronics and Quantum Computation

Front Cover
David Awschalom, D. Loss, N. Samarth
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 13, 2002 - Science - 311 pages
2 Reviews
The past few decades of research and development in solid-state semicon ductor physics and electronics have witnessed a rapid growth in the drive to exploit quantum mechanics in the design and function of semiconductor devices. This has been fueled for instance by the remarkable advances in our ability to fabricate nanostructures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. Despite this contemporary focus on semiconductor "quantum devices," a principal quantum mechanical aspect of the electron - its spin has it accounts for an added quan largely been ignored (except in as much as tum mechanical degeneracy). In recent years, however, a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron has begun to emerge. This field of semiconductor "spintronics" (spin transport electron ics or spin-based electronics) places electron spin rather than charge at the very center of interest. The underlying basis for this new electronics is the intimate connection between the charge and spin degrees of freedom of the electron via the Pauli principle. A crucial implication of this relationship is that spin effects can often be accessed through the orbital properties of the electron in the solid state. Examples for this are optical measurements of the spin state based on the Faraday effect and spin-dependent transport measure ments such as giant magneto-resistance (GMR). In this manner, information can be encoded in not only the electron's charge but also in its spin state, i. e.
  

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Contents

1 Ferromagnetic IIIV Semiconductors and Their Heterostructures
1
12 Preparation of IIIV Based Ferromagnetic Semiconductors
2
13 Magnetic Properties
4
14 Transport Properties
6
142 Temperature and Magnetic Field Dependence of Resistivity
8
15 CarrierInduced Ferromagnetism
12
16 Basic Properties of Ferromagnetic IIIV Semiconductor Heterostructures
16
17 SpinDependent Scattering and Tunnel Magnetoresistance in Trilayer Structures
17
46 Conclusion
142
References
143
5 Optical Manipulation Transport and Storage of Spin Coherence in Semiconductors
147
52 Experimental Techniques for Measuring Spin Coherence in Semiconductors
148
53 Electron Spin Coherence in Bulk Semiconductors
153
54 Electron Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
160
55 Coherent Spin Transport in Semiconductors
162
552 Transport Across Heterointerfaces in ZnSeGaAs
166

18 Ferromagnetic Emitter Resonant Tunneling Diodes
19
19 SpinInjection in Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Heterostructures
21
110 ElectricField Control of HoleInduced Ferromagnetism
23
111 Summary and Outlook
25
References
26
2 Spin Injection and Transport in Micro and Nanoscale Devices
31
22 Background
32
222 Spin Injection in Clean Bulk Metals
33
223 Conceptual Picture of Spin Injection
36
224 Spin Injection in Impure Metal Films
39
23 Toward a Semiconducting Spin Transistor
40
233 Concept
41
234 Prerequisites for Realizing a Spin Transistor
42
235 Spin Lifetime in the Conduction Channel
43
237 Gate Control of the Spin Orbit Interaction Experiment
44
24 Initial Experiments on Spin Injection in Semiconductor Heterostructures
47
242 Local Hall Effect
50
243 Results from Smaller Optimized Devices
51
25 Spin Injection in Diffusive Systems
55
251 Basic Model for Spin Transport in Diffusive Systems
56
252 The FN Interface
58
253 Spin Accumulation in Multiterminal Spin Valve Structures
59
254 Observation of SpinInjection and SpinAccumulation in an AllMetal Spin Valve
61
255 Comparison with the Johnson Spin Transistor
62
256 Future Prospects for Spin Accumulation and Spin Transport in All Metal Devices
63
259 Possible Solutions to Conductivity Mismatch
66
261 Multiprobe Model for Ballistic Spin Polarized Transport
68
262 Results of Spin Resolved 4Probe Model
72
Junction Bulk and Boundary Scattering
75
A Closer Look
77
265 Other Theoretical Treatments
78
27 Projections and Conclusions
79
272 Recent Advances in Spin Transport Across Interfaces
81
273 Recent Advances in Spin Injection Via Semimagnetic Semiconductors
85
275 Detection of Nonequilibrium Spin Polarization
86
References
87
SpinPolarized Transport from Magnetic into NonMagnetic Semiconductors
93
32 Electrical Spin Injection
94
322 The Optical Detection of Spin Injection
95
323 The Spin Aligner LED
96
324 Experimental Results
97
325 Exclusion of Side Effects
99
326 Hole Injection
100
33 A Novel Magnetoresistance Effect
101
332 Device Layout
102
333 Results and Interpretation
103
34 Outlook
104
References
105
4 Spin Dynamics in Semiconductors
107
42 Fundamentals of Semiconductor Spin Coherence
108
421 Coherent Ensembles of Spins
109
422 Mobile Electron Decoherence Via the SpinOrbit Interaction
110
423 Sources of Inversion Asymmetry
115
424 Comparison with Ultrafast Probes of Orbital Coherence
121
425 Concluding Remarks
123
431 Magnitude of the Fluctuating Field
125
432 Calculation of the Effective Time for Field Reversal
126
434 Spin Decoherence in IIIV 001 Quantum Wells
127
44 Spin Transport
131
441 DriftDiffusion Equations
132
442 LowField Motion of Spin Packets in Nonmagnetic Semiconductors
133
443 Diffusion and Mobility of Packets in GaAs
135
444 Influence of ManyBody Effects on LowField Spin Diffusion
137
445 Motion of Spin Packets in SpinPolarized Semiconductors
138
446 HighField Spin Transport in the Diffusive Regime
139
451 Transport Across the Ferromagnet Semiconductor Boundary
140
56 Spin Coherence and Magnetic Resonance
175
562 AllOptical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Semiconductors
177
57 Coherent Manipulation of Spin in Semiconductors
181
58 Spin Coherence in Hybrid FerromagnetSemiconductor Heterostructures
183
581 Ferromagnetic Imprinting of Nuclear Spins in Semiconductors
184
582 Spontaneous Electron Spin Coherence in nGaAs Produced by Ferromagnetic Proximity Polarization
188
59 Summary and Outlook
190
References
192
6 Spin Condensates in Semiconductor Microcavities
195
62 Polariton Properties
196
622 Polariton Dynamics and Pair Scattering
200
63 Experiments
202
632 Microcavity Sample
203
633 Parametric Scattering
205
64 Condensate Dynamics
211
642 Macroscopic Quantum States
214
643 QuantumCorrelated Pairs
216
644 Conclusions
217
References
218
7 Spins for Quantum Information Processing
221
711 The Requirements
222
72 Timeline
224
73 Final Thoughts
226
References
227
8 Electron Spins in Quantum Dots as Qubits for Quantum Information Processing
229
811 Quantum Computing
230
812 Quantum Communication
231
82 Requirements for Quantum Computing
232
822 Slow Spin Relaxation in GaAs Semiconductor Quantum Dots
233
823 Scalability
236
825 Quantum Error Correction
238
826 Gate Precision
239
827 Initialization
240
831 Lateral Coupling
241
832 Vertical Coupling
244
833 Anisotropic Exchange
245
834 Superexchange
247
835 Accessing the Exchange Interaction J Between the Spins in Coupled Quantum Dots Via the Kondo Effect
248
84 SingleSpin Rotations
250
841 Local Magnetic Coupling
251
85 ReadOut of a Single Spin
253
853 Coupled Dots as Entangler
254
855 Berry Phase Controlled Spin Filter
255
856 Detection of SingleSpin Decoherence
256
857 Rabi Oscillations and Pulsed ESR
257
858 Spin ReadOut
258
859 Optical Measurements
259
87 Quantum Communication
260
871 Andreev Entangler
261
872 Andreev Entangler with Luttinger Liquid Leads
264
873 Entangled Electrons in a Fermi Sea
265
874 Noise of Entangled Electrons
266
875 DoubleDot with Normal Leads
268
876 DoubleDot with Superconducting Leads
269
877 Biexcitons in Coupled Quantum Dots as a Source of Entangled Photons and Electrons
270
88 Conclusions
272
References
273
9 Regulated Single Photons and Entangled Photons From a Quantum Dot Microcavity
277
92 Single InAsGaAs Quantum Dots
279
93 Generation of Single Photons
285
94 Coupling Single Quantum Dots to Micropost Microcavities
286
95 Theoretical Analysis of a Micropost DBR Cavity
293
96 Entangled PhotonPairs from a Single Quantum Dot
298
97 Conclusions
303
Index
307
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