Mechanics of animal locomotion
R. McNeill Alexander
Springer-Verlag, 1992 - Medical - 304 pages
This is a comprehensive account of the mechanics of animal locomotion; it deals with crawling, running, swimming, and flight of organisms ranging fromprotozoans and jelly fishes to whales and humans. It also shows how muscles function in locomotion, how energy is used and how animals adapt their locomotion to the special circumstances of their lives.
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acceleration activation aerodynamic aerofoil Alexander R McN amplitude analysis angle animal locomotion Biewener biped birds body Bone calculated Cavagna cilium coefficients components contraction cost of transport cross-bridge curve cycle drag coefficients dynamic effects efficiency Ellington energetic energy cost equations estimate Exp Biol filament fish flight muscle flow fluid force function gait gliding Gosline Heglund hovering hydrostatic skeleton increases induced drag insect flight insects kinematics kinetic energy length change lift lift coefficients limb locomotor mammals mass maximum measured mechanical power output mesoglea metabolic momentum motion moving muscle belly muscle fibres myosin O'Dor optimal optimum parameters passive peak Pennycuick performance Physiol power requirements predicted propulsion Reynolds numbers rotation running sarcomere sarcomere length shortening shows speed squid strain energy stress stroke structure surface swimming Taylor CR tendinous sheets tendon thrust trailing edge Trueman unsteady velocity vertebrates vortex vorticity wake walking Weis-Fogh wing wingbeat Zool Lond