Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Google eBook)
Beginning in the mid-fifties and emanating largely form MIT, and approach was developed to linguistic theory and to the study of the structure of particular languages that diverges in many respects from modern linguistics. Although this approach is connected to the traditional study of languages, it differs enough in its specific conclusions about the structure and in its specific conclusions about the structure of language to warrant a name, "generative grammar."Various deficiencies have been discovered in the first attempts to formulate a theory of transformational generative grammar and in the descriptive analysis of particular languages that motivated these formulations. At the same time, it has become apparent that these formulations can be extended and deepened.The major purpose of this book is to review these developments and to propose a reformulation of the theory of transformational generative grammar that takes them into account. The emphasis in this study is syntax; semantic and phonological aspects of the language structure are discussed only insofar as they bear on syntactic theory.
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Abstract Adjective analysis Animate apply assigned assumption base Phrase-markers base rules categorial component category symbol Chapter Chomsky complex symbol condition constitute constructions context contextual features convention deep structure defined deletion derivation determine deviant device discussion distinction dominated embedded empirical empiricist evaluation measure example explanatory adequacy fact formulation furthermore given gram grammatical relations hypothesis innate involving John Katz language acquisition language learning lexical categories lexical entry lexical items lexical rule lexicon linguistic theory linguistic universals marker matrix morpheme notational Noun Phrase Object particular phonetic phrase structure grammar possible primary linguistic data problem proposal question redundancy rules restricted rewriting rules seems selectional rules semantic component semantic interpretation sense sentence sequence sincerity sort specified strict subcategorization rules string strong generative capacity structural descriptions suggested surface structure syntactic component syntactic features theory of transformational tion traditional Transformation-markers transformational grammar transformational rules underlying Verb weak generative capacity
Page 3 - Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speakerlistener, in a completely homogeneous speech-community, who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitations, distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors (random or characteristic) in applying his knowledge of the language in actual performance.
Page 4 - Observed use of language or hypothesized dispositions to respond, habits, and so on, may provide evidence as to the nature of this mental reality, but surely cannot constitute the actual subject matter of linguistics, if this is to be a serious discipline.