Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another
This lively survey of the history of conflict between democracies reveals a remarkable-and tremendously important-finding: fully democratic nations have never made war on other democracies. Furthermore, historian Spencer R. Weart concludes in this thought-provoking book, they probably never will. Building his argument on some forty case studies ranging through history from ancient Athens to Renaissance Italy to modern America, the author analyzes for the first time every instance in which democracies or regimes like democracies have confronted each other with military force. Weart establishes a consistent set of definitions of democracy and other key terms, then draws on an array of international sources to demonstrate the absence of war among states of a particular democratic type. His survey also reveals the new and unexpected finding of a still broader zone of peace among oligarchic republics, even though there are more of such minority-controlled governments than democracies in history. In addition, Weart discovers that peaceful leagues and confederations-the converse of war-endure only when member states are democracies or oligarchies. With the help of related findings in political science, anthropology, and social psychology, the author explores how the political culture of democratic leaders prevents them from warring against others who are recognized as fellow democrats and how certain beliefs and behaviors lead to peace or war. Weart identifies danger points for democracies, and he offers crucial, practical information to help safeguard peace in the future.
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The Discovery of Global Warming takes a historical perspective in presenting the global warming theory. First proposed as a theoretical concept in 1896, the idea of a warming atmosphere gradually evolved from speculation to a generally accepted scientific possibility and lately to a controversial and significant international political issue. In between its tumultuous history are protracted discussions, consensus building efforts, and compromises among climate scientists. The book teases out the emergence of global warming and climate change and the revolutionary shift in scientific thinking that these made to bear on scientists. Knowledge about the subject has been greatly extended by debates among competing hypotheses and evidences. The ingenuity of scientists was only matched by the technological advances and their greater cooperation. It is notable how one scientific issue became an avenue for the collaboration of scientists from such diverse specializations as geophysics, meteorology, oceanography, geochemistry, computer science, and biology. Carbon dioxide from a variety of human and industrial sources is steadily accumulating in the atmosphere, trapping heat along with other greenhouse gases. In recent decades, the greenhouse effect is pulling up and up the global average temperature, with each decade breaking the previous one's hottest record. Who would have thought that some of the clues to understanding the climate process are hidden in the ice cores, in the drilled columns from deep ocean, and in coral reefs and tree rings? The book presents a lively narrative of bickering scientists. It is full of momentous scientific incidents and discovery and wide historical analyses and perspectives. It sustains an enthusiasm in a subject that is gaining more and more import as new researches and global computer models give uncomfortable predictions about the future of humankind. Even as the book discusses complex concepts from seemingly disparate but actually well connected scientific disciplines, it successfully lays down the historical basis for climate change and makes convincing arguments for the present peoples to act on the issue at hand. In the middle of the book, the author Spencer R. Weart of the American Institute of Physics made a good observation about the lack of significant imaginative works on the subject. The world's image makers had failed to give the public a vivid picture of what climate change might truly mean. There was nothing like the response to the threat of nuclear war in earlier decades, when first-class novels and movies had commanded everyone's attention. Global warming featured in a bare handful of science fiction paperbacks and shoddy movies, where scientifically dubious monster storms or radical sea-level rise served as a background for hackneyed action plots. The general public was never offered convincing and humanized tales of travails that might realistically beset us: the squalid ruin of the world's mountain meadows and coral reefs, the mounting impoverishment due to crop failures, the invasions of tropical diseases, the press of millions of refugees from drowned coastal regions. A specter is haunting the Earth's atmosphere. Scientists have risen to the challenge and are able to explain most of the uncertainties behind human-induced global warming and the prospects for the future. Yet it remains a challenge to producers of literary fiction and popular films to come up with serious works about the subject, works that will galvanize readers and give them hope. Indeed, despite the increased awareness about the phenomenon of global warming and climate change, their scientific basis has failed to colonize the imagination of many writers of fiction. The disaster movies generated by Hollywood are populated by shallow characters who were so overwhelmed by noise and special effects around them that the disaster itself seemed to consume them, the whole film, and the hapless audience. Decent fiction and films about global warming and climate change must be rare because the science behind...
LibraryThing ReviewUser Review - LibraryThing
As the author describes it: "The future actions we might take are not my subject. This book is a history of how we came to understand our present situation." He traces strands of inquiry that go back to the 1800s: why did ice ages occur? how is the industrial revolution affecting the atmosphere? There are things that cause warming and things that cause cooling and complex interactions and feedback loops that don't make for a one-size-fits-all description of the future. Components of a global system have been gradually discovered, understood from data collection and experimentation, and incorporated into increasingly complex computer models that go back to the 1950s. A handy time line notes the significant developments. The political prominence of the issue arose after much wrangling among scientists about what was too murky and uncertain for presentation, or too alarmingly plausible to remain confined to technical journals. This is not a book for computer geekery about the models. It is about the major players, the broad trends, the difficulties of individuals in a small slice of time struggling to comprehend eons on a global scale. I am, after reading this book, more appreciative of the effort involved. (read 31 Mar 2011)
Investigating the Puzzle of Democratic Peace
Ancient Greece Definitions and a Pattern of Peace
Medieval Italy Wars Without States
The Rise of Republican States Ideals and Alliances
The Political Culture of Peace
The Swiss Republics Defining an Enemy
Oligarchy Intervention and Civil War
Republics Versus Autocracies
Imperialist Aggression by Democracies
Leagues of Republics
Crusading for Democracy
Military Confrontations Between Approximately Republican Regimes of the Same Kind
WellEstablished Republics Versus Authoritarian Regimes
WellEstablished Republics Versus Newborn Republics
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William F. Mabe - Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One ...
Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another. By Spencer R. Weart (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1998) 424 pp. $35.00 ...
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JSTOR: Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another
Book Reviews Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another. By Spencer R. Weart. (New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1998. Pp. 432. ...
Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another
Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another by Spencer R. Weart. Yale University Press, po Box 209040, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-9040, 1998, ...
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'Never at War' - New York Times
'Never at War'. E-MAIL · Print; Save. Published: October 18, 1998. To the Editor:. As a political scientist who studies the ''democratic peace'' phenomenon, ...
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Never at War by Spencer Weart, Chapter 1
From Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another, by Spencer R. Weart. Chapter One: Investigating the Puzzle of Democratic Peace ...
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Journal of Political Ecology
Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another, by Spencer Weart, New Haven: Yale University Press (1998), 424 pp. ...
jpe.library.arizona.edu/ volume_8/ 501Allison.html
Foreign Affairs - Never Say Never: Wishful Thinking on Democracy ...
Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another . Spencer R. Weart . New Haven Yale University Press , 1998 , 432 $35.00. ...
www.foreignaffairs.org/ 19990101fareviewessay959/ stephen-m-walt/ never-say-never-wishful-thinking-on-democracy-and-war...
ingentaconnect Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One ...
Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another by Spencer R. Weart. Author: Owen, John M. Source: Political Science Quarterly, Volume 114, ...
www.ingentaconnect.com/ content/ taps/ psq/ 1999/ 00000114/ 00000002/ art00026;jsessionid=as6n20fe57ai8.alexandra?format=print
Spencer R. Weart, Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another.New. Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998. 432 pp. Cloth, $35.00; paper, none. ...
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User:Ultramarine/sandbox4 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Contents. 1 Arguments for the democratic peace. 1.1 General points; 1.2 Evidence for less systematic violence between democracies; 1.3 Evidence for less ...
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