Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another

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Yale University Press, 1998 - History - 424 pages
3 Reviews
This lively survey of the history of conflict between democracies reveals a remarkable-and tremendously important-finding: fully democratic nations have never made war on other democracies. Furthermore, historian Spencer R. Weart concludes in this thought-provoking book, they probably never will. Building his argument on some forty case studies ranging through history from ancient Athens to Renaissance Italy to modern America, the author analyzes for the first time every instance in which democracies or regimes like democracies have confronted each other with military force. Weart establishes a consistent set of definitions of democracy and other key terms, then draws on an array of international sources to demonstrate the absence of war among states of a particular democratic type. His survey also reveals the new and unexpected finding of a still broader zone of peace among oligarchic republics, even though there are more of such minority-controlled governments than democracies in history. In addition, Weart discovers that peaceful leagues and confederations-the converse of war-endure only when member states are democracies or oligarchies. With the help of related findings in political science, anthropology, and social psychology, the author explores how the political culture of democratic leaders prevents them from warring against others who are recognized as fellow democrats and how certain beliefs and behaviors lead to peace or war. Weart identifies danger points for democracies, and he offers crucial, practical information to help safeguard peace in the future.

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Investigating the Puzzle of Democratic Peace
Ancient Greece Definitions and a Pattern of Peace
Medieval Italy Wars Without States
The Rise of Republican States Ideals and Alliances
The Political Culture of Peace
The Swiss Republics Defining an Enemy
Oligarchy Intervention and Civil War
Republics Versus Autocracies
Authoritarian Diplomacy
Republican Diplomacy
Imperialist Aggression by Democracies
Leagues of Republics
Crusading for Democracy
Military Confrontations Between Approximately Republican Regimes of the Same Kind

WellEstablished Republics Versus Authoritarian Regimes
WellEstablished Republics Versus Newborn Republics

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About the author (1998)

Spencer R. Weart is Director Emeritus of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics.

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