Clearing the smoke: assessing the science base for tobacco harm reduction
Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, Sep 1, 2001 - Medical - 636 pages
Despite overwhelming evidence of tobacco's harmful effects and pressure from anti-smoking advocates, current surveys show that about one-quarter of all adults in the United States are smokers. This audience is the target for a wave of tobacco products and pharmaceuticals that claim to preserve tobacco pleasure while reducing its toxic effects.Clearing the Smoke addresses the problems in evaluating whether such products actually do reduce the health risks of tobacco use. Within the context of regulating such products, the committee explores key questions: -- Does the use of such products decrease exposure to harmful substances in tobacco?-- Is decreased exposure associated with decreased harm to health?-- Are there surrogate indicators of harm that could be measured quickly enough for regulation of these products?-- What are the public health implications?This book looks at the types of products that could reduce harm and reviews the available evidence for their impact on various forms of cancer and other major ailments. It also recommends approaches to governing these products and tracking their public health effects.With an attitude of healthy skepticism, Clearing the Smoke will be important to health policy makers, public health officials, medical practitioners, manufacturers and marketers of "reduced-harm" tobacco products, and anyone trying to sort through product claims.
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INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND AND CONCLUSIONS
PRINCIPLES OF HARM REDUCTION
17 other sections not shown
abstinence alcohol animal assays associated Benowitz NL biologically biomarkers bladder cancer bupropion Cancer Res Carcinogenesis carcinogens cardiovascular cell chronic cigarette smoking cigarettes per day claims Clin clinical committee COPD coronary cotinine decreased DNA adducts DNA repair dose dose-response relationship drug environmental tobacco smoke evaluation exposure reduction exposure to tobacco filter former smokers gene genetic harm reduction health effects human increased risk inhalation levels lung cancer lung cancer risk lung function measures metabolism mortality mutagen mutations Natl Cancer Inst nicotine gum nicotine patch nicotine replacement nitrosamines nonsmokers number of cigarettes oral outcomes oxidative passive smoking Pharmacol population potential public health pulmonary regulation regulatory respiratory risk assessment risk factors scientific smok smoke exposure smokeless tobacco smoking behavior smoking cessation specific surveillance tion tissue tobacco constituents tobacco-related PREPs toxicants TSNAs tumors U.S. Department U.S. DHHS users women Yes Yes