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OTHER APPLICATIONS OF THERMOELEMENTS
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arms atomic lattices calculated carrier concentration chamber chassis circuit coefficient of performance cold end cold junction conductors const constant cross-section crystal current carriers curve Debye temperature decreases degeneracy dependence of mobility diffusion effective mass efficiency electric field electrical conductivity electron mobility equal equation experimental formula free electrons free path length heat flux heat transfer heater holes impurity atoms increase insulated investigated ionic lattice iV/deg Joule heat junction temperature lead selenide lead telluride low temperatures materials maximum measured metals optimum value PbTe Peltier effect Peltier heat perature phonons Pisarenko's plate radiator ratio reduced relationship resistance Seebeck semiconductor thermoelements semiconductors shows specimen stage substances tempera temperature dependence temperature difference temperature drop temperature gradient temperature range theoretical theory thermal conductivity thermal emf coefficient thermo thermobattery thermocouple thermodynamic thermoelectric batteries thermoelectric cooling thermoelectric refrigerator thermoelement thermopile Thomson coefficient Thomson heat ture vibrations voltage whilst Wiedemann-Franz law zero