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agriculture albedo analysis anthropogenic approach areas atmosphere biosphere boundaries carbon climate change climatology components cycles deforestation deforestation and desertification desertification E. O. Wilson earth ecological ecological potential economic ecosystems effects energy environment environmental changes estimates evaluation evapotranspiration example factors field fluxes forest geographic information geographic information systems geosystems global change Goward groundwater HNPS Holocene human activities hydrologic IGBP impact assessment important increase integrated interaction International J. C. Allen Krenke land landscape dynamics landscape system lithosphere maps measurements ment models moisture monitoring networks observations ocean percent photosynthesis physical phytomass pollution potential precipitation predictions problems processes production Program rates regional remotely sensed result risk assessment runoff scale scenarios scientific simulation snow cover social social impact assessments soil degradation Soviet spatial structure studies surface temperature terrestrial tion tropical UNFAO USSR USSR Academy variables vegetation cover Velitchko vulnerability zones