The stratosphere: phenomena, history, and relevance
This book describes the discovery of the stratosphere itself and of various unexpected phenomena in the stratosphere: e.g., a manned balloon flight in 1901 as high as 11 km; an expedition to Lake Victoria in Africa in 1908 which found inexplicable west winds in the stratosphere above the equator; and the discovery of the ozone layer in the 1930s, the Berlin Phenomenon in 1952, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in 1960, the influence of volcanic eruptions in 1970, the ozone hole in 1984, and the influence of the 11-year solar cycle in 1987. The book also describes how these phenomena are connected with each other and how they create variability in the climate system, in addition to man-made changes, such as the decrease in ozone. We use the stratosphere as one example of Nature's complexity and of how often discoveries are ignored because they do not fit prevalent concepts.
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Berlin and the Stratosphere
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11-year sunspot cycle 30-hPa heights 30-hPa temperature amount of ozone annual mean Antarctic Antarctica arctic stratosphere areas ascents Assmann associated average balloon Berlin Berson CFCs changes Chapter chlorine climate Cold Events cooling correlations decrease destruction of ozone discovery distribution Dobson Units earth's east easterlies equatorial eruptions global Hadley circulation instruments January Labitzke latitudes Loon H lower stratosphere Major Midwinter Warmings measured mesosphere Meteorological Institute monthly mean maps Mother-of-Pearl Clouds NCEP/NCAR Northern Hemisphere observations Observatory ozone amounts ozone hole ozone layer period polar cyclonic polar regions Polar Stratospheric Clouds polar vortex pole pressure Quasi-Biennial Oscillation radiosonde rockets satellites Scherhag solar activity solar cycle solar maxima sphere spring strato stratopause stratospheric warming subtropics summer sunspot cycle surface total ozone trend Tromso tropical stratosphere tropopause troposphere upper values vertical Warm Events waves west winds westerlies winter