Saltmarsh Conservation, Management and Restoration (Google eBook)

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Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 14, 2007 - Science - 219 pages
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Coastal habitats provide the link between the land and the sea. They are dynamic, combine to form ecosystems of great complexity and provide significant areas for wildlife. Their landscapes are treasured by visitors, painters and musicians. They also provide locations for significant economic activity and are intimately bound up with fisheries, providing food and shelter for some species of commercially exploited fish stocks. The habitats themselves provide a buffer to tides and wave action, which may be particularly important in areas where relative sea level is rising and during storm periods. Managing these assets in the face of continuing pressure from human populations on a sustainable basis is a major task.

This book series will look at each of the main coastal habitats - saltmarshes, sand dunes and sand/shingle shores, modified coastal grazing marshes/salinas and sea cliffs in turn. Each habitat will be described in relation to its natural development and the way this has been influenced by human actions. The different states in which the habitats exist will be reviewed against the pressures exerted upon them. Options for management will be considered and the likely consequences of taking a particular course of action will be highlighted. These options will include the traditional approaches to management (for the conservation of wildlife and landscapes) as well as habitat restoration. The way the value of the areas change under different management regimes will be considered from both a socio-economic and environmental perspective.

  

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Contents

Saltmarshes and Ecosystems
1
13 Saltmarsh Vegetation
3
131 Tides and Transitions
4
133 The Nature of the Vegetation
6
14 An Ecosystem Approach
7
142 Internal and External Relationships
9
15 Geographical Location and Type
10
Human Influences
17
721 Native Waterfowl in Europe
109
722 Mammals
110
724 Snails and other Invertebrates
111
73 Mechanisms for Change Grazing by Domestic Livestock
112
732 Changes in Rare Species
114
733 Grazing and Breeding Birds
116
734 Grazing by Domestic Stock Effects on Avian Herbivores
117
735 Grazing and Invertebrates
118

212 Reed Cutting
18
213 Samphire Gathering
19
221 Turf Cutting
20
231 Summer Dykes
21
233 Salinas
22
234 Rice Cultivation
23
24 Enclosure and Habitat Loss Land Claim
24
241 Saltmarshes other Coastal Wetlands and Mosquitoes
25
243 Warping and Sediment Fields
28
244 Enclosure for Infrastructure
29
245 Summary of Enclosure
30
25 Other Influences
31
Nature Conservation
32
32 The USA
33
33 The Changing Scene in Europe
34
341 Saltmarsh Enclosure in the Wash SouthEast England
36
342 Erosion of Essex Saltmarsh SouthEast England
38
343 Cardiff Bay South Wales
41
351 Protecting Essex Saltmarsh
42
352 The UK Saltmarsh Squeeze
43
36 The Rest of Europe
45
362 Accommodating Change Living with the Sea
46
States and Values
48
42 Physical States Description
49
421 State 1 Accreting
50
422 State 2 SemiStable Dynamic Equilibrium
52
423 State 3 Eroding
55
43 Physical States Values
57
432 Economic Values
58
433 Cultural Values
62
44 Vegetative States Description
64
441 State 1 Heavily Grazed
65
442 State 2Moderately Grazed
66
444 State 4Abandoned Formerly Grazed
67
445 State 5 Overgrazed
69
The Physical States
74
52 Physical Trends
75
531 State 1Accreting Saltmarsh
77
532 State 2Dynamically Stable
78
533 State 3Eroding Saltmarsh
79
54 Summary A Physical Model for Change
80
541 Rates of Accretion and Loss
81
55 Monitoring is an Essential Tool
83
56 Assessing the Need for Intervention
85
562 Dynamic Equilibrium State 2
86
57 Approaches to Restoration
87
572 Protecting and Restoring Saltmarsh
88
573 Moving Landward Reintegration and Habitat Creation
89
Physical States Restoration Methods
90
621 Warping Poldering
91
622 Bay Bottom Terracing in the USA
92
623 Use of Dredged Material
93
624 Reseeding and other Vegetation Restoration
94
626 Offshore Breakwaters
95
627 RipRap Protecting the Eroding Edge
97
Reintegration with the Sea
98
632 The German Baltic Coast
99
641 Abandonment
100
642 Realignment
102
65 Conclusions
106
Vegetation States
108
736 Grazing and Sea Bass
119
74 Lesser Snow Geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens A Conservation Dilemma?
120
743 Controlling Goose Numbers
122
76 Grazing State Evaluation Model
124
761 Effecting Vegetative Change A State Evaluation Model
125
Grazing Management
126
82 Assessing the Need for Change
127
822 Protecting Nature Conservation Values
128
823 Assessing the Implications of Grazing
129
824 Grazing Management in North America
130
83 Managing Grazing Levels
131
832 Maintaining Moderately Grazed Saltmarsh State 2
132
833 Maintaining Heavily Grazed Saltmarsh State 1
133
842 Reducing Grazing Pressure Heavily Grazed State 1 Saltmarsh
134
843 Restoring Grazing on Abandoned State 4 Saltmarshes
135
844 Mowing as a Management Tool on Abandoned Saltmarshes
137
845 Restoring Overgrazed Saltmarsh
138
Spartina
139
912 Hybridisation
141
913 Pattern of Invasion
142
914 Rates of Sedimentation
143
92 World Domination
144
921 World Resources
145
923 USA Washington State and San Francisco Bay
146
93 Changing Perceptions
147
931 Impacts on Bird Populations in the UK
148
933 Problems in the USA
149
934 Studies Elsewhere
150
941 Herbicides
151
942 PhysicalMechanical Control
152
945 Summary of Control Measures
153
95 Spartina spp Friend or Foe?
154
952 Natural Die Back
155
953 Changing Patterns of Invasion Great Britain
157
954 Spartina in NorthWest England a Case of Succession
158
96 Conclusion
161
962 Friend or Foe
162
Conclusions
165
1021 Can Saltmarshes Keep Pace with SeaLevel Rise?
167
103 Saltmarshes and Saltmarsh Restoration
168
1041 Will it All Come Out in the Wash?
169
1042 Realignment in Belgium
171
1043 The Wadden Sea
172
105 Restoration in North America
173
1051 The State of Louisiana and the Mississippi Delta
174
1052 San Francisco Bay
175
1061 Approaches to Restoration in the Wadden Sea the Netherlands and Germany
176
1062 Depoldering the Delta Region of the Netherlands
177
1064 The Mediterranean Sediments and Deltas
179
1065 The Ebro Delta
180
1066 The Venice Lagoon
181
1071 A European Initiative
182
1072 A Historical Perspective
183
1073 A New Perspective on Saltmarsh Conservation?
184
108 What Does the Future Hold?
186
Appendix English and Latin Names
187
Appendix A Few Useful Web Sites
190
References
193
Index
213
Copyright

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Page iii - Haq Editorial Advisory Board M. Collins, Dept. of Oceanography, University of Southampton, UK D. Eisma, Emeritus Professor, Utrecht University and Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, The Netherlands KE Louden, Dept. of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada JD Milliman, School of Marine Science, The College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA, USA HW Posamentier, Anadarko Canada Corporation, Calgary, AB, Canada A. Watts, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford,...