The Hydrogen Economy:: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

Front Cover

The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President's 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation's long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation's future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

  

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1
INTRODUCTION
8
HYDROGEN ENDUSE TECHNOLOGIES
25
TABLES
26
TRANSPORTATION DISTRIBUTION AND STORAGE OF HYDROGEN
37
SUPPLY CHAINS FOR HYDROGEN AND ESTIMATED COSTS
45
Various Parameter Values
50
technologies for the generation of hydrogen
55
E6 CS Size Hydrogen via Steam Reforming of Natural Gas Plus CO Capture with
148
E19 Midsize Hydrogen via Current Steam Methane Reforming Technology
161
E32 LiquidHydrogenBased Fueling Stations with Future Optimism 174
176
E43 Distributed Size Onsite Hydrogen via PV SolarBased Electrolysis with Future
187
F U S Energy Systems
194
F1 World fossil energy resources
195
G1 Economics of Conversion of Natural Gas to Hydrogen
201
G2 Estimated investment costs for current and possible future hydrogen plants with
202

IMPLICATIONS OF A TRANSITION TO HYDROGEN IN VEHICLES
64
CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE
84
Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas and Coal
85
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
91
CROSSCUTTING ISSUES
106
MAJOR MESSAGES OF THIS REPORT
116
REFERENCES
123
A Biographies of Committee Members
129
Presentations and Committee Meetings
139
E1 Hydrogen Supply Chain Pathways Examined
142
G3 Nuclear Reactor Options and Their Power Cycle Efficiency
210
G5 Power cycle net efficiency Cne and thermaltohydrogen efficiency rH for the
212
G7 Depiction of the most promising sulfur thermochemical cycles for water
214
G5 Capital Costs of Current Electrolysis Fueler Producing 480 Kilograms of Hydrogen
221
G8 Results from Analysis Calculating Cost and Emissions of Hydrogen Production
228
G13 Efficiency of biological conversion of solar energy
230
G9 Estimated Cost of Hydrogen Production for Solar Cases
237
H Useful Conversions and Thermodynamic Properties
240
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Bibliographic information